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Respiration














Energy The ability to do work.
measured in Kj (per mole)

Respiration the process by which organisms extract the energy stored in complex molecules
and use it to make ATP.

Anabolic reactions building up large molecules from smaller ones

Catabolic reactions (hydrolysing), the breaking down of large molecules to…

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ATP universal short term energy store of the cell


ATP ADP + Pi .....+ 30.6 Kj/mol

Respiration releases energy to make ATP.

Phosphorylation the addition of phosphate (inorganic) molecules to ADP/AMP

Types of Phosphorylation

1) Substrate level: Glycolysis & Krebs cycle.
A single chemical reaction involving the direct transfer of…

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CoA (Coenzyme A)
Carries acetate groups made from Pyruvate during the link reaction
onto the Krebs cycle.

NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)
Helps dehydrogenase enzymes to carry out oxidation reactions.

FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide)
Helps dehydrogenase enzymes to carry out oxidative reactions.

Reactions

Decarboxylation a reaction where a carboxyl group is…

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pyruvate, oxygen, ATP and many other molecules due to proteins being present, some of
which form channels or carriers. Also contains enzymes.

.The Matrix enzymes present that catalyse the Link reaction and the many reactions of the
Krebs cycle. Also consists of proteins, lipids, mitochondrial DNA, and mitochondrial
ribosomes. (matrix…

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Stage 2

.Each molecule is split into 2 molecules of triose phosphate (3C sugar), glyceraldehydes
phosphate.

Stage 3 ­ Oxidation of triose Phosphate

2 H atoms are removed from each 3C sugar by dehydrogenase enzymes, aided by
coenzyme NAD (which is a H accepter).

.NAD combines with H =reduced NAD…

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The Link reaction

Pyruvate actively transported into mitochondrial matrix

In the Link reaction, Pyruvate is converted to acetate

.Pyruvate dehydrogenase removes 2H which combine with NAD
.Pyruvate decarboxylase removes a carboxyl group, which become CO2


The reduced NAD will take 2H atoms to the inner mitochondrial membrane (Cristae),
where it…

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*The Co A is then able to collect more acetate (from the Link reaction again!!)

Stage 2

Citrate is decarboxylated (CO2 removed) and dehydrogenated (2H atoms removed,
accepted by NAD, which is reduced) to form a 5C compound, oxogulatric acid.

Stage 3

5C compound is decarboxylated (CO2 removed) & dehydrogenated…

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Chemiosmosis/ Electron Transport Chain

Step 1

Reduced NAD and FAD are oxidised when they donate hydrogen atoms, which are split
into protons and electrons, to the electron carriers.

The first electron carrier to accept electrons from reduced NAD is a protein called NADH
dehydrogenase.

The Proteins go into solution in…

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Step 4

The inner membrane is impermeable to H+ ions. They can diffuse through channels
associated with the enzyme ATP Synthase. The flow of the protons is called Chemiosmosis.









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**Good video...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3y1dO4nNaKY

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation....is the formation of ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP,
in the…

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Protons flow through ATP synthase enzymes and drive rotation, so ADP +Pi form ATP.

Electrons pass from the last carrier in chain (IV) to oxygen (final electron carrier)

H+ ions join electrons and oxygen to produce water.

O2 +4H + 4E 2H2O

**Good Videos.....
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbJ0nbzt5Kw&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRlTBRPv6xM&feature=related


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