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ATP universal short term energy store of the cell
ATP ADP + Pi .....+ 30.6 Kj/mol
Respiration releases energy to make ATP.
Phosphorylation the addition of phosphate (inorganic) molecules to ADP/AMP
Types of Phosphorylation
1) Substrate level: Glycolysis & Krebs cycle.
A single chemical reaction involving the direct transfer of a phosphate group
from the donor molecules of ADP
2) Oxidative level: Glycolysis, The link reaction and the Krebs cycle.
Electrons are released in the above reactions.…read more

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CoA (Coenzyme A)
Carries acetate groups made from Pyruvate during the link reaction
onto the Krebs cycle.
NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)
Helps dehydrogenase enzymes to carry out oxidation reactions.
FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide)
Helps dehydrogenase enzymes to carry out oxidative reactions.
Decarboxylation a reaction where a carboxyl group is removed from a substance.
C02 is produced.
Dehydrogenation a reaction where hydrogen atoms are removed from a substance.
Redox reaction involves the passage of electrons from one substance to another.…read more

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ATP and many other molecules due to proteins being present, some of
which form channels or carriers. Also contains enzymes.
.The Matrix enzymes present that catalyse the Link reaction and the many reactions of the
Krebs cycle. Also consists of proteins, lipids, mitochondrial DNA, and mitochondrial
ribosomes. (matrix also contains molecules of coenzyme NAD and oxaloacetate the 4C
compound that accepts acetate from the Link reaction).
.…read more

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Stage 2
.Each molecule is split into 2 molecules of triose phosphate (3C sugar), glyceraldehydes
Stage 3 ­ Oxidation of triose Phosphate
2 H atoms are removed from each 3C sugar by dehydrogenase enzymes, aided by
coenzyme NAD (which is a H accepter).
.NAD combines with H =reduced NAD or NADH
.2 molecules of NAD are reduced per molecule of glucose
2 molecules of ATP are formed by substrate level Phosphorylation.
Stage 4 ­ conversion of Triose phosphate to Pyruvate
.…read more

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The Co A is then able to collect more acetate (from the Link reaction again!!)
Stage 2
Citrate is decarboxylated (CO2 removed) and dehydrogenated (2H atoms removed,
accepted by NAD, which is reduced) to form a 5C compound, oxogulatric acid.
Stage 3
5C compound is decarboxylated (CO2 removed) & dehydrogenated (accepted by NAD)
to a 4C compound, Succinyl Co A
Stage 4
4C compound changed to another 4C compound (Succinic acid). During this a molecule of
ADP is phosphorylated to produce ATP (substrate level Phosphorylation).…read more

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Chemiosmosis/ Electron Transport Chain
Step 1
Reduced NAD and FAD are oxidised when they donate hydrogen atoms, which are split
into protons and electrons, to the electron carriers.
The first electron carrier to accept electrons from reduced NAD is a protein called NADH
The Proteins go into solution in the matrix.
Step 2
The electrons are passed along a chain of electron carriers and then donated to molecular
oxygen. (02 the final electron acceptor).…read more

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Step 4
The inner membrane is impermeable to H+ ions. They can diffuse through channels
associated with the enzyme ATP Synthase. The flow of the protons is called Chemiosmosis.
**Good video...
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Oxidative Phosphorylation....is the formation of ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP,
in the presence of oxygen which is the final electron acceptor.
The final stage is on the inner mitochondrial membrane, Cristae.…read more

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Protons flow through ATP synthase enzymes and drive rotation, so ADP +Pi form ATP.
Electrons pass from the last carrier in chain (IV) to oxygen (final electron carrier)
H+ ions join electrons and oxygen to produce water.
O2 +4H + 4E 2H2O
**Good Videos.....
http://www.youtube.…read more


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