A2 OCR BIOLOGY 2.1.20 Notes!

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Emily Summers
Biological Species Concept
G r
oup
of
simi
l
a r
or
gani
sms
that
can
int
erbr
eed
to
produce
f
erti
le
o f
fspring
Phylogenetic Species Concept
A
group
of
organisms
w i
th
simi
lar
mor
phol
ogy,
physi
ology
a nd embryology
and
b ehavi
our
and
o ccupy
the
same
ecol
ogi
cal
ni
che
Monophyletic group
O ne
that
i
ncl
udes
an
ancest
ral
or
gani
sm
and
all
i
t'
s descendent
speci
es
Paraphyletic group I
ncludes t
he most
recent
ancest
or
but
not
all
i
t'
s descendent
s,
it
i
s a
mon ophyl
etic group
w i
th
one one more
clades
excl
uded, e.
g.
the
groupi
ng of
rept
il
es
excl
udes birds which
are
d escendent
s of
r
epti
les.
% Divergence =
(number
of
subst
it
uti
ons/number
of
base
pai
rs
analysed)
x
100

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