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© SSER Ltd.
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Enzyme technology is concerned with the application of enzymes
as tools of industry, agriculture and medicine

Enzymes are biological catalysts that fulfil their role
by binding specific substrates at their active sites
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This specificity…

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Slide 4 Microbial enzymes are ISOLATED from a variety of sources
and these include bacteria, fungi and yeast cells ___________________________________
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Electron micrograph of bacteria (Bacillus)



Microorganisms produce enzymes that function inside their cells
(intracellular enzymes) and they may also produce enzymes that are ___________________________________
secreted and…

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Slide 10 The nutrients added to the fermenter must allow for optimum growth
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of the microorganisms being used ­ different microorganisms
may have specific nutritional requirements
All microorganisms require a source of carbon as it is a component of
all their organic molecules, e.g. carbohydrate, protein, fat, nucleic acid.…

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Page 6

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Slide 16 ___________________________________
PRODUCTION OF PECTINASE

Pectin is an insoluble substance found in the cell walls of plants ___________________________________
In the drinks industry, juice extracted from fruits
appears cloudy due to the presence of pectin
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Pectinase is an enzyme that is used in the industry to break down the…

Page 7

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Slide 19 ___________________________________
Certain species of bacteria, called
Thermophilic Bacteria, possess enzymes
that can operate at temperatures that
would denature most known enzymes ___________________________________
The optimum temperature for some of these enzymes is above 100oC
One problem associated with thermophilic bacteria is that they often do
not produce large quantities…

Page 8

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The costs associated with the use of enzymes for industrial
purposes can also be reduced by immobilising the
enzymes ___________________________________
Enzymes for industrial processes are more valuable when
they are able to act in an insolubilised state rather than in
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solution
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Enzymes are immobilised by…

Page 9

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Slide 25 ___________________________________
Compared with free enzymes in solution, immobilised enzymes
have a number of advantages for use in industrial processes

The stability of many enzymes is increased when they are in an
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immobilised state; they are less susceptible to changes in
environmental conditions such as temperature and pH…

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Slide 28 ___________________________________
The sensitivity and specificity of enzymes makes them useful
tools in medicine for the detection and measurement of chemicals
in fluids such as blood and urine ___________________________________
Because of their specificity, enzymes will bind to only one
substrate ­ they can therefore be used for the identification…

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