A2 Biology: Breathing & using a spirometer

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Max123
  • Created on: 30-03-13 21:15
Preview of A2 Biology: Breathing & using a spirometer

First 242 words of the document:

Slide 1 ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
© SSER Ltd.
___________________________________
___________________________________
Slide 2 ___________________________________
Enzyme technology is concerned with the application of enzymes
as tools of industry, agriculture and medicine
Enzymes are biological catalysts that fulfil their role
by binding specific substrates at their active sites
___________________________________
This specificity is one property of enzymes that
makes them useful for industrial applications ___________________________________
The value of using enzymes over inorganic catalysts in the
technological field is their efficiency, selectivity and specificity
Enzymes are able to operate at room temperature, atmospheric
___________________________________
pressure and within normal pH ranges (around 7)
­ all of which create energy savings for industry
Enzymes possess specifically shaped active sites for reacting with
one specific substrate thereby generating pure products
___________________________________
free from unwanted by-products
Enzymes are biodegradable and, unlike many inorganic
catalysts, cause less damage to the environment
___________________________________
___________________________________
Slide 3 ___________________________________
Microorganisms have been
used for thousands of years
for making products such as
wine, beer, vinegar, soy sauce,
bread and cheese
___________________________________
The microorganisms (such
as yeast) are really used as a
___________________________________
source of enzymes during
the manufacture of these
products of biotechnology
___________________________________
___________________________________
Many industrial processes now make use of pure sources of enzymes, i.e.
the enzymes have been ISOLATED from the microorganisms before use
___________________________________
___________________________________

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Slide 4 Microbial enzymes are ISOLATED from a variety of sources
and these include bacteria, fungi and yeast cells ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
Electron micrograph of bacteria (Bacillus)
Microorganisms produce enzymes that function inside their cells
(intracellular enzymes) and they may also produce enzymes that are ___________________________________
secreted and function outside the cells (extracellular enzymes)
___________________________________
Slide 5 Intracellular enzymes function within cells
___________________________________
Extracellular enzymes are secreted from cells
and function in the external environment
Extracellular enzymes are more commonly used in biotechnological…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Slide 7 ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
Slide 8 ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
Slide 9 ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Slide 10 The nutrients added to the fermenter must allow for optimum growth
___________________________________
of the microorganisms being used ­ different microorganisms
may have specific nutritional requirements
All microorganisms require a source of carbon as it is a component of
all their organic molecules, e.g. carbohydrate, protein, fat, nucleic acid.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Slide 13 ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
Slide 14 ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
Slide 15 ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Slide 16 ___________________________________
PRODUCTION OF PECTINASE
Pectin is an insoluble substance found in the cell walls of plants ___________________________________
In the drinks industry, juice extracted from fruits
appears cloudy due to the presence of pectin
___________________________________
Pectinase is an enzyme that is used in the industry to break down the pectin
The effect of pectinase is to clarify the fruit juice and to make it flow more freely ___________________________________
Pectinase is obtained from the fungus Aspergillus niger
___________________________________
Aspergillus niger produces pectinase as an extracellular…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Slide 19 ___________________________________
Certain species of bacteria, called
Thermophilic Bacteria, possess enzymes
that can operate at temperatures that
would denature most known enzymes ___________________________________
The optimum temperature for some of these enzymes is above 100oC
One problem associated with thermophilic bacteria is that they often do
not produce large quantities of the required enzyme ___________________________________
This problem has been overcome using gene technology: the gene for
thermostable enzyme production has been transferred into higher yielding
bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, creating strains that demonstrate
good…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Slide 22 ___________________________________
The costs associated with the use of enzymes for industrial
purposes can also be reduced by immobilising the
enzymes ___________________________________
Enzymes for industrial processes are more valuable when
they are able to act in an insolubilised state rather than in
___________________________________
solution
___________________________________
Enzymes are immobilised by binding them to, or trapping
them in a solid support
___________________________________
Various methods for immobilising enzymes are available
___________________________________
___________________________________
Slide 23 ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
Slide 24 ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Slide 25 ___________________________________
Compared with free enzymes in solution, immobilised enzymes
have a number of advantages for use in industrial processes
The stability of many enzymes is increased when they are in an
___________________________________
immobilised state; they are less susceptible to changes in
environmental conditions such as temperature and pH fluctuations
Immobilised enzymes can be recovered and re-used,
___________________________________
reducing overall costs
The products of the reaction are not contaminated with enzyme
eliminating the need to undertake costly separation of
___________________________________
the enzyme from the…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Slide 28 ___________________________________
The sensitivity and specificity of enzymes makes them useful
tools in medicine for the detection and measurement of chemicals
in fluids such as blood and urine ___________________________________
Because of their specificity, enzymes will bind to only one
substrate ­ they can therefore be used for the identification
___________________________________
of a specific substance in a biological sample
___________________________________
Because of their sensitivity, enzymes are able to detect the
presence of specific molecules even when they are
present at very low concentrations ___________________________________
The…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all resources »