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1.5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
· simplest
ratio
of
atoms
of
each

Empirical
Formula
elements
present
in
a
compound


· the
actual
number
of
atoms
of
each

Molecular
Formula
element
in
the
molecule


· shows
unique
arrangement
of
atoms
in
a

Structural
Formula
molecule
without
showing
all
the
bonds



Displayed
Formula
·…

Page 2

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Number of Root
carbons Side chain Prefix
1 Meth CH3 Methyl
2 Eth
C2H5 Ethyl
3 Prop
4 But C3H7 Propyl
5 Pent C4H9 Butyl
6 Hex


Family Functional Group Suffix Example
Alkanes R ­­ H -ane Ethane
Alkenes R­CH=CH2 -ene Propene
Haloalkanes R­­X None Chloromethane
Alcohols R­­OH -ol Ethanol…

Page 3

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Isomerism

Structural Isomerism - same molecular formula
but different structural formula. They can have:

positional isomerism - same functional
group attached to chain at different points


functional group isomerism - functional
groups that are different


chain isomerism - different arrangement
of hydrocarbon chain (branching)



Positional isomerism
e.g. C3H7Cl could represent:…

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