1.5 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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1.5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
· simplest
ratio
of
atoms
of
each
Empirical
Formula
elements
present
in
a
compound
· the
actual
number
of
atoms
of
each
Molecular
Formula
element
in
the
molecule
· shows
unique
arrangement
of
atoms
in
a
Structural
Formula
molecule
without
showing
all
the
bonds
Displayed
Formula
· shows
every
bond
in
the
molecule
· an
atom
or
group
of
atoms
in
an
organic
Functional
Group
molecule
which
is
responsible
for
the
characteristic
reactions
of
that
molecule
Homologous
series
-
family
of
organic
compounds
with
same
functional
group
but
different
C
chain
length
they have a general formula e.g. alkenes = CnH2n
each member of series differs from next by CH2
length of carbon chain has little effect on chemical
reactivty of functional group
affects physical properties like Tm & Tb & solubility. Tm & Tb
increase as number of C atoms increase due to
increasing IM forces
chain branching reduces Tm because molecules don't
pack as well together

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Number of Root
carbons Side chain Prefix
1 Meth CH3 Methyl
2 Eth
C2H5 Ethyl
3 Prop
4 But C3H7 Propyl
5 Pent C4H9 Butyl
6 Hex
Family Functional Group Suffix Example
Alkanes R ­­ H -ane Ethane
Alkenes R­CH=CH2 -ene Propene
Haloalkanes R­­X None Chloromethane
Alcohols R­­OH -ol Ethanol
Aldehydes R­­CHO -al Ethanal
Ketones R­­COR' -one Propanone
Carboxylic acids R­­COOH -oic acid Ethanoic acid
Examples
2-methylpentane 3-methylpentane
· Number indicates position of branching in a chain
and position of any functional group
· Molecules…read more

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Isomerism
Structural Isomerism - same molecular formula
but different structural formula. They can have:
positional isomerism - same functional
group attached to chain at different points
functional group isomerism - functional
groups that are different
chain isomerism - different arrangement
of hydrocarbon chain (branching)
Positional isomerism
e.g. C3H7Cl could represent:
1-chloropropane
2-chloropropane
Functional group isomerism
e.g. C2H6O could represent:
Ethanol (alcohol) Methoxymethane (an ether)
Chain isomerism
e.g.…read more

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