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  • Xylem
    • Function
      • Transport water and minerals from the roots up to the leaves and other parts of the plant
    • Adaptations to its function
      • Made from dead cells aligned end-to-end to form a continuous column
      • Narrow tubes so water column doesn't break easily and capillary action is effective
      • Pits in the lignified walls allow water to move sideways from one vessel to another
      • Lignin deposited in the walls in spiral patterns allows xylem to stretch as the plant grows and enables the stem to bend
      • The flow of water is not impeded because            -there are no end walls         -there are no cell contents   -there is no nucleus or cytoplasm       -lignin thickening prevents the wall from collapsing
    • It is in dicotyledonous plants (small leaves)
    • Lignin
      • Waterproofs the walls of the cells so the cells die
      • Strengthens vessel to prevent collapse
      • Thickens cell wall to allow flexibility
    • Dead
    • Pits
      • Pores in wall of vessel where lignification is not complete
      • Allow water to leave one vessel and pass onto another or pass into living parts of the plant


Megan Cox


Thank you this really helps

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