Weimar Republic

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  • Weimar Republic 1918-29
    • Why The Republic Was Unpopular
      • The treaty and military forces
        • Army reduced to 100,000
        • All planes destroyed and no air force was allowed
        • Only allowed 6 battleships and cruisers.
        • No military was allowed in the land bordering France
      • The Treaty and Land Losses
        • Germany lost 13% of its European territory
        • Germany lost 11 of its colonies
    • Weimar Constitution
      • STRENGHTS
        • Men and Women able to vote
        • Voting age reduced from 25 to 21
        • No one group or person could have too much power
        • Election of new president every 7 years
      • WEAKNESSES
        • Not popular as isn't wasn't the peoples choice
        • Lack of strong Government
          • This led to a crisis and laws passing without the prior check/ consent from the Reichstag
    • Impact of the First World War on Germany
      • 2 million troops died and over 4 million troops wounded (11 million in total fought)
      • Government debts increases from 50 billion marks to 150 billion marks
      • More then 750,000 Germans died because of food shortages.
      • The Abdication of Kasier Wilhem
        • 10th November 1918
          • Friedrich Ebert suspended the old Reichstag
            • He then formed the Council of People's Representatives as a temporary measure
            • The Armistice
              • Was a peace agreement between Germany and the Allies.
              • Signed on the 11 November 1918
        • The Berlin streets were crowded. Some people were armed, hoping to take over parts of the city
        • Phillipp Scheidemann (SDP) declared the new Republic to the crowds
    • Challenges From The Left And Right
      • The Spartacists
        • Left Wing
        • Had Soviet backing
        • Led  by Rosa Luxemburg & Karl Liebknecht, based in Berlin
      • The Freikorps
        • Right Wing
        • Made up of ex soldiers who had kept their weapons
        • Had 250,000 men in March 1919
        • Organised by the regular army
      • Challenges from the LEFT
        • January 1919, the Spartacit's took over the governments newspaper and telegraph
          • they tried to organise a general strike in Berlin
      • Challenges from the RIGHT
        • March 1920, Freikorps troops, fearing unemployment, decided to march on Berlin
    • Challenges of 1923
      • Hyperinflation
        • When the price of goods increase dramatically
        • Why There Was Hyperinflation
          • The government printed more money to pay for the First World War, but it didn't have more gold - it was banktrupt
          • The Weimar government printed more money for post-war shortages and asked for longer to pay the first reperations
          • French Troops invaded the Ruhr to take reparations payments in goods and raw materials
            • German workers went on strike
            • 80% of German coal, iron and steel were in the Ruhr and many of it's factories
              • This was all a disaster for Germany's economy
                • German workers went on strike
            • The Weimar government printed more money to pay strikers and make up for loss of coal, steel and iron production
          • The German mark was worthless
        • NEGATIVE EFFECTS
          • Some people couldn't afford essentials like bread
          • Wages rose, but not as quickly as prices
          • People blamed the Weimar Government, which made it even more unpopular
        • POSITIVE EFFECTS
          • Farmers benefited, as they were paid more for food
          • Foreign visitors could buy more for their money
          • Some people could pay off mortgages and pay off loans
    • Reasons For Recovery, 1923-29
      • Rentenmark
        • November 1923, Stresemann set up a new currency/ Rentenbank
        • Supply of these notes were controlled, their value was tied to the price of gold so it had real value
        • Helped resolve Hyperinflation
      • International loans after the First World War
      • The Dawes Plan, 1924
        • In 1924, Charles Dawes, an American banker, designed a plan so Germany could pay it's reparations
        • Instalments were reduced to £50 million a year
        • US banks agreed to make loans to German industry
      • The Young Plan, 1929
        • August 1929, a committee, set up by the Allies and led by an American banker called Owen Young, proposed a plan
        • The Young Plan reduced the total reparations debt £6.6 billion to £2 billion
        • The payments could be made over a longer amount of time, up until 1988
        • Lower reparations ment lower taxes for German people
    • Changes For Workers And Women
      • Standard Of Living
        • Wages & Work
          • Working hours reduced
          • Wages rose
          • Working conditions improved
        • Unemployment Insurance
          • 3% of workers' earnings were deducted
            • This was put towards an insurance that would gave them small benefits if they became unemployed or sick
        • Housing
          • 15% rent tax was introduced to fund building associations
          • Between 1925 and 1929, 101,000 homes were built
          • There was still a housing shortage but things had improved
      • Women At Work
        • Most women gave up work after married.
          • There was a drop in women working from 75% in 1918 to 36% in 1925
        • Few women secured high status jobs
        • There was an increase in part time jobs
      • Women At Lesiure
        • Women more interested in having a good time rather then getting married and having kids
      • Women In Politics
        • 90% of women tuned out at elections
        • Got the right to vote in 1918 and could stand for elections
    • Cultural Changes, 2924-29
      • Art
      • Cinema
      • Architecture

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