Northern Rebellion

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  • Northern Rebellion  1569
    • Was the Northern Rebellion a threat?Yes
    • Causes
      • Religion
        • all leaders were Catholic
        • tore down Protestant images, destroyed English bibles in Durham Cathedral and performed mass
          • Protestant bishop - had been an exile
        • traditionally seen as main cause
          • Once the rebellion had started they claimed it was
          • Sussex was convinced religion was behind...
          • mentioned in the earls procclomation: "set up a new found religion and heresy"
      • Local Politics
        • Northumberland:  Elizabeth had dropped him as Lieutenant of the North, taken away his Wardenship if the middle march, ignored his claim over a copper mine on his land and refused him any part in the supervision of MQS
        • Wives were dominating figures: Westmoreland's "we and our country would be shamed forever"
          • Westmoreland's poverty was so great he was forced to borrow money to gather armies
        • Royal official: "i take this gathering is done more out of fear, than they want to carry out any evil act"
      • Court Politics
        • "diverse new set up nobles... not go about to overthrow and put down the ancient nobility of the realm...but also have misused the Queen's majesty"
        • failure to act on succession
        • Elizabeth's objection to marriage between N and MQS suggested there would be no improvement
          • revisionists argue this = most important
        • noble families increasingly alienated from court
        • Sussex's strong reaction accused of forcing into rebellion
      • Bastard Feudalism
        • financial connections between feudal lords and tenants (no longer about duty)
        • helped raise horsemen - sons of gentry families served magnates. they were often retainers for the Earls
        • Earls accused of forcing people to help them - they were only able to raise their army by threatening people.
    • Was the rebellion a threat? No
      • No: Exommunication arrived too late
      • No: Government = strong response gathered force of 10,000 men
        • New  militia system of Lord Lieutenants allowed royal forces to raise sufficient numbers
        • Further south Elizabeth could rely on support of Bishop of Carlisle and Earl of Shrewsbury - wasn't going to progress to London
        • Mary was in Staffordshire = far away needed Carlisle and Shrewsbury'ssupport...moved by the time they drew near
      • No: unlikely to gain popular support - much of the rebels forces were paid
        • when pay wasn't unavailable they fled
    • How were the rebels dealt with?
      • Norfolk imprisoned - released but later executed for involvement in Ridolfi plot
      • Westmoreland escaped abroad
      • Northumberland betrayed by a scottish clan and executed in York 1572
      • around  450 executed - although Elizabeth ordered the execution of up to 800 bad weather and the reluctance of officials = much less
        • Lawrence stone: last Northern call for less centralised government for more than 500 years


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