A2-Ethics-Virtue Ethics

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  • Created by: Npc
  • Created on: 03-03-16 18:09
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    • Aristotle
      • 'Virtuous actions must be pleasurable in themselves'
      • Believed that eudaimonia was the goal in life
    • Virtues
      • Originates with
        • Aristotle
          • 'Virtuous actions must be pleasurable in themselves'
          • Believed that eudaimonia was the goal in life
      • Aquinas
        • Developed Aristotle's idea od virtues
          • Became known as cardinal virtues
            • PRUDENCE- means that we should be careful and not reckless in how we think or behave
            • TEMPERANCE- refers to doing things in moderation and having some self-control
            • COURAGE- refers to the ability to have courage when bearing pain
            • JUSTICE- implies that we must be fair to all people
            • Called cardinal virtues because they are the hinges on which all moral virtues depend
              • Latin: Cardo= 'hinge'
      • They are the middle point between a deficiency and an excess
        • This is the doctrine of the mean or the golden rule
      • 2 types of virtues
        • Intellectual virtues
          • 9 intellectual virtues- 5 primary and 4 secondary
          • Are qualities of the mind that can be developed in our lives by instruction by others
        • Moral virtues
          • E.g. courage, patience
          • Are the qualities of character we must develop in order to become good people
    • Modern virtue ethics
      • Elizabeth Anscombe
        • Believed it was important to find a system of morality that could be based on the ideas of human flourishing
        • 'Virtues ethics might provide a much firmer foundation for reasoning about moral dilemmas'
        • 'Actions have replaced persons; behaviour has been separated from people'
        • Believed it was important to return our attention to the character of the person rather than simple obedience to rules and principles
        • 'Good people make good deeds, but good deeds do not necessarily make good persons'
      • Philippa Foot
        • 'Courage, temperance and wisdom benefit both persons who had these dispositions and other people as well; and moral failings such as pride, vanity and worldliness and avarice harm both the possessor and others'
        • Agreed with Aristotle that training id the basis groundwork of virtue ethics and they need to be nurtured through constant habit especially in early years
      • Alasdair MacIntyre
        • Believed modern society was a 'moral vacuum'
        • Argued that society needs to reassert Aristotle's moral and intellectual virtues in medicine, education, politics, and commerce
        • He identifies some of the archetypal characters that have evolved in a society lacking virtue
          • The Bureaucratic Mangers
          • The Rich Aesthete
          • The Therapists
      • Rosalind Hursthouse
        • Attempts to show how virtue ethics can be applied to moral issues
          • E.g. Abortion
            • A virtuous person shouldn't take abortion lightly
            • They will realise that motherhood is intrinsically worthwhile


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