Changing Urban Environments

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  • Created by: Molly6098
  • Created on: 05-01-14 11:26
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  • Changing Urban Environments
    • Urbanisation
      • About
        • The growth in the proportion of the country's population living in urban areas
        • Mostly happening in poorer countries
      • Causes
        • Rural-urban migration
          • Poorer countries: shortage of services in rural areas, more jobs in urban areas
          • Richer countries: Mostly happened in Industrial revolution
    • Parts of a city
      • CBD
        • Central Business District
        • Shops and offices-very few houses
        • Transport routes meet
        • High land values and competition for space
        • Tall buildings and high building density
      • The Inner City
        • Poorer housing quality and older industrial buildings
        • Run-down and deprived
        • New housing and industry where derelict land has been cleared and redeveloped
      • The Suburbs
        • Housing areas towards the edge of the city
        • Middle-class families: nicer environment, less crime and pollution
        • Cheaper land but still close enough to commute
      • The rural-urban fringe
        • Both urban and rural land uses
        • Fewer, larger houses
    • Urban issues
      • Housing Shortage
        • Solutions
        • Causes
          • Urban population has grown quickly
      • Run downs CBDs
        • Solutions
          • Pedestrianising areas
          • Improving access with public transport
          • Improving public areas to make them attractive
          • Converting derelict warehouses
        • Causes
          • Out of town shopping centres and business parks being built
      • Traffic congestion and pollution
        • Solutions
          • Pedestrianisation of central areas
        • Causes
          • Increasing population means more cars on roads
      • Ethnic segregation
        • Solutions
          • Make sure everyone can access information about different services
          • Improve communication between all parts of the community
          • Provide interpreters at places like hospitals and police stations
          • Providing suitable services for different cultures
        • Causes
          • People prefer to live near others with same background and who speak same language
          • People live near services that are important to their culture
    • Squatter settlements
      • What
        • Settlements built illegally by people who can't afford proper housing
        • Problem in many growing cities in poorer countries
        • Badly built and overcrowded
        • No electricity or sewers
        • No emergency services
      • Solutions
        • Self help schemes
          • Government provides materials for locals to build houses
        • Site and service schemes
          • People may a small aount of rent and can borrow money for building materials
        • Local authority schemes
          • Funded by local government- improving life for people living in settlements
      • Case study
        • Favela-Bairro Project-Rio de Janeiro-Brazil
        • 600 squatter settlements
        • Started in 1995
        • Involves 253,000 people in 73 favelas
        • $300 million funding
        • Social improvements
          • Daycare centres and after school schemes
          • Adult education classes
          • Help for people affected by drug and alcohol addiction and domestic violence
        • Economic Improvements
          • Residents can legally own properties
          • Training schemes to learn new skills and get better jobs
        • Environmental Improvements
          • Wooden buildings replaced with brick buildings
          • Removal of homes on dangerously steep slopes
          • Widening and paving of streets to allow easier access
          • Provision of clean water, electricity and rubbish collection
        • Residents choose improvements
        • Neighbourhood associations formed to communicate with residents
        • New services staffed by residents to provide incomes
        • Standard of living, property prices and local business increased
    • Environmental Issues
      • Waste disposal problems
        • Can't afford to dispose of waste properly
        • No resources or facilities to dispose of rubbish
        • Causes health problems
        • No landfills or incinerators
      • Air pollution
        • Acid rain-damages buildings and vegetation
        • Health problems-headaches, bronchitis
        • Some pollutants destroy ozone layer
      • Water pollution
        • Kills fish and other aquatic animals-disrupts food chains
        • Chemicals build up in food chain-damages humans who eat them
        • Contamination of water supplies with sewage can spread diseases like typhoid
      • Industrial accidents
        • No health and safety laws
        • Causes thousands of deaths, injuries, illnesses, disabilities and birth defects
        • Can cause air and water pollution
    • Sustainable Cities
      • About
        • Doing things to protect the environment and save resources so that people now have what the need without stopping people in the future having what they need
      • Sustainable solutions
        • Schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it
        • Conserving natural environments and historical buildings
        • Building on brownfield sites
        • Building carbon-neutral homes
        • Creating an efficient public transport system
      • Case Study
        • Curitiba, Brazil
        • 1.8 million people
        • Reducing car use
          • Good bus system-express-Pre-pay boarding stations and bus-only lanes. Cheap bus fares
          • 200 km of bike paths
        • Open spaces and conserved natural environments
          • Increased from 0.5m^2 to 52m^2 per person
          • Over 1000 parks and natural areas
          • 1.5 million trees planted
          • Builders given tax breaks if their projects include green spaces
        • Recycling schemes
          • 70% of rubbish is recycled
          • Locals given bus and food tickets for taking their rubbish to recylcing centres

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