Urbanisation

  • Created by: Susan
  • Created on: 18-03-18 23:22
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  • Urbanisation
    • developed/ developing country
      • Developed country = stable, rich +  lots of services + resources. Developing countries (LICs) = in the process of getting to that point.
        • developing countries = found in hot environments + Western Asia - Bangladesh
        • developed countries = richer countries, mostly located in Northern hemisphere
    • measure development from
      • death rates
      • employment rates
      • average salaries
      • crime rates
      • homelessness rates
      • calorie intake
      • quality of housing
      • education (reading+writing)
      • running water
      • richness of countries
      • population
      • quality of water/education/life
      • human welfare
      • social well being
    • rural/urban
      • urban
        • more employemnt
        • man made/built infrastructure
        • higher population/busy
        • expensive
        • noisy/crowded
        • varied employment
        • pollution
        • densely populated
        • more buildings/shops
        • lots of skyscrapers
        • congested roads
        • more transport
        • not a lot of greenery
      • rural
        • greenery/natural environemnt
        • lower population
        • better + cleaner
        • cheaper
        • quiet
        • jobs - agriculture, farming
        • less air pollution
        • sparsely populated
        • minimal infrastructure - roads, facilities, buildings, utilities (water, electricity)
        • lots of space
    • global population growth
      • 1900s = population started growing rapidly
      • by 2050 = estimated population = reach 10 billion
      • devloping regions = higher population rate
      • total population since 1700s = increased nearly x10 (2050)
    • urban growth: urbanisation
      • urbanisation = growing population of world's population who live in cities
        • 2 key causes are:
          • 1. natural increase(more births than deaths)
          • 2. migration
        • population of urban getting bigger
        • movement of people into urban area
        • process by which population of country becomes more urban + less rural
        • causes towns + cities to grow
        • area becoming more 'urbanised'
      • increase in % of people living in urban areas
        • 21st century - more people living in urban areas than rural areas
          • urbanisation occurred on big scale in N-America + W-Europe in 18th + 19th century due to Industrial Revolution
            • new technology was deployed on mass scale in form of factories + manufacturing plants which attracted people in with varied employment opportunities
              • 1950s - trend started developing in LEDC's as countries started to industrialise + global corporations relocated their factories to exploit cheap labour + lax health/safety/environmental regulations
                • industrialisation in LEDC's meant new forms of employment available
    • global urbanisation
      • continent outside Europe, N-America + Oceania which has highest % of its population living in urban areas is South America
    • population increasing in Africa(fastest growth) + in countries/continents nearest equator - LICs
      • population decreasing in N countries due to slower population growth
        • two main factors that affect population change:
          • 1. birth rate - number of live births per 1000 people 2. death rate - number of deaths per 1000 people
            • difference between birth rate + death rate is called natural increase
              • high natural increase occurs if BR is high + DR is low
                • to find natural increase: BR - DR = NI
                  • to find 'rate' of natural increase: (BR - DR)/10 = NIR%
                    • 1. Bangladesh: BR 22, DR 13 BR - DR = NI 22 - 13 = 9 +0.9%
                    • 2. Germany: BR 8, DR 10 8 - 10 = -2 -0.2%
                    • 3. Uganda: BR 47, DR 13 47 - 13 = 34 +3.4%
                    • 3 locations = different NI/D because Uganda - less aware of contraception than Germany, Germany - developing country, Bangladesh - low NIR as developing in areas such as healthcare

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