Carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates
    • monomer = mono-saccharide
      • Trioses
        • 3 Carbons
      • Pentoses
        • 5 Carbons
      • Hexoses
        • 6 Carbons
      • 2 monomers joned together = Disaccharide
        • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
        • Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
        • Glycosidic Bonds
          • OH group on Carbon 1 and OH group on Carbon 4 of another glucose molecule react
            • Production of a water molecule
              • Leaves an Oxygen Bridge between the two glucose molecules
                • AKA Glycosidic Bond
            • i-4 Glycosidic Bond
    • Alpha Glucose
      • OH group is below the plane of the ring
    • Beta Glucose
      • OH group is above the plane of the ring
      • Glucose formed as a ring so the bonds are locked into position
        • Alpha Glucose
          • OH group is below the plane of the ring
        • The ring forms when Oxygen on the Carbon group 5 bonds to Carbon 1. The Oh group on Carbon 1 can either be above or below
    • Glucose
      • Energy in respiration
      • Stores chemical potential energy that can be used to make ATP because it has many H atoms needed for oxidative phosphorylati-on (making ATP)
      • Sugar = soluble, making it easy to transport around the body
    • Polysaccaride
      • Chain made of many thousands of monosaccarides
      • Starch
        • Amylose (20%) + Amylopectin (80%)
          • Polymers of Alpha Glucose
          • Amylose molecule contains 2-500 glucose monomers all linked by 1-4 glycosidic bonds
            • Naturally curl into a helix because bonds are below the ring
          • Amylopectin molecule contains 5,000-100,000 glucose units mainly linked by 1-4 glycosidic bonds
            • Molecule has branches created by 1-6 glycosidic bonds
        • Stores glucose that we need for respiration
        • Insoluble - Doesn't decrease the glucose cell water potential
        • Compact particularly amylopectin
      • Glycogen
        • Similar to Amylopectin
          • Shorter and more branches
            • Allowing it to be broken down quicker
              • Useful for animals because we are active and require a more accessible glucose store
    • Cellulose Molecules
      • Cellulose is a polymer of Beta Glucose
        • Due to beta glucose structure, every alternating glucose needs to be upside down in order to make a polysaccaride
          • Because the glycosidic bonds alternate sides the molecule forms a straight chain called a cellulose molecule
    • Cellulose Fibres
      • Mainy cellulose molecules lie parallel to each other in a bundle... 60-70 molecules make a microfibril and cellulose fibres are made from bundles of microfibrils
        • H bonds between the partially + H on the OH group of Carbon 3 and the partially - Oxygen on the OH group of carbon 6
    • Cellulose
      • Needs a high tensile strength so it doesn't burst when full of water
      • Straight, parallel chains allow H bonds to form all the way down
        • So many gives it strength
      • The cellulose fibres go different directions so the cell wall can withstand force from any direction

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