Unit 6

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  • Unit 6
    • Setting human resource objectives
      • HR- the management of people in the workplace to assist the organisation to achieve its objectives
        • Alignment- means to fit or integrate the different features of an organisation
          • Values- the essence of a business identity, the grounding principles or beliefs which keep the business going
      • Objectives- employee engagement and involvement, talent development,training, diversity, alignment of values, number, skills and location of employees
        • Employee engagement-behaviour, attitude, outcomes
      • Talent development- training, education, development
        • Create the environment, develop the talent, increase performance
      • Internal influences on HR- trade unions and employee relations, new technology, overall performance of business, organisational structure, finances
        • External influences on HR- political factors, economy, social, technological, legislation, actions of competitors, structure of population
      • Hard HR- treats employees as a resource to be monitored and used efficiently in order to achieve strategic objectives
        • Soft HR- treats employees as valuable assets, a major source of competitive advantages which is vital in its importance to achieving strategic objectives
      • Diversity- encourage new recruits to come from a wide a background as possible, retain those employees already recruited through cognition and embracing of their cultural differences
    • Analysing human resource performance
      • Labour turnover- number leaving a business over a given time period/ average number of employed over a given period x100
      • AVG number employed over a given period= employed at start + employed at end/2
      • Retention rates- ability of a business to retain its employees
        • Retention strategies- career development,training, executive coaching, quality and diversity programmes
      • Employee costs as a % of turnover= employee costs/revenue x100
        • High costs- national insurance, pension and fringe benefits
          • Average labour cost per unit= average wage per hour x average labour hours per unit
    • Improving organsiationaldesign and human recourse flow
      • Job design- satisfying employees
        • Eg. having some autonomy over tasks, responsibility,feedback on performance,social contact, definite goals
      • Hackman and Oldham- variety, autonomy and decision authority
        • Psychological states- meaningfulness, responsibility,knowledge of outcomes
      • Job enrichment- more responsibilities by offering them more challenges to use their skills fully-Hertzberg=non-financial method of motivation
        • + Job satisfaction, reduction in costs, developed skills, autonomy
          • - Change in hierarchy, reluctant to change, delayering as fewer managers are needed, no quick results
      • Job enlargement-job rotation
        • + Relieves boredom of work, less absenteeism,motivated workforce, more involved in decision making
          • - Fall in specialism, repetitive and loss of satisfaction
      • Organisational structure- hierarchal and flat or tall
        • Influences- size, nature, culture, skills, external environement
      • Delegation- assignent of responsibility and authority to another person
        • Authority, is the power to give orders,  make decisions and enforce obedience
          • Span of control- number of functions or people which an individual is responsible for
            • Narrow span-tall= allows tight control and close supervision aswell as communication is made easier however subordinates may feel left out, costs are high and too much supervision may be unmotivating
              • Wide span-flat= fewer levels of management and decision making, lower supervision costs and greater job satisfaction however direct supervision can be hard and control can be lost, if business expands may be unworkable
            • Centralisation- greater degree of central control over the business
              • Decentralisation- authority is delegated to regions or subordinates
                • Decisions are made with closer links to customer, links to local communities,used as motivational tool
              • Can gain economies of scale, utilise specialisation more easily, strong leadership
      • Types of training; induction, external, internal, on the job, off the job
    • Improving motivation and engagement
      • Taylor-Scientific management,close supervision, jobs should be broken down into small tasks, need training, piece-rate
        • Only works when they're watched, might not cooperate, money is not the only motivator
      • Mayo-HR relations, motivated by better communications, greater involvement and working in teams
      • Maslow-hierarchy of needs, journey of self actualisation
      • Hertzberg-2 factor theory, motivators (give satisfaction)= give sense of achievement,recognition, responsibilities         hygiene factors(reduce dissatisfaction) = company  policies, supervision, employer relations, working conditions
      • Financial methods of motivation- piece-rate, commission, salary schemes, performance related pay
        • + Feel more important, encourages responsibility,develops loyalty
          • -Will get a bonus even if they don't pull weight, may not feel secure, compromise quality
      • Non-Financial methods of motivation- public praise, working in teams, autonomy over work, empowerment
        • +Fewer bored workers, multi-skilled, staff shortages can be filled, staff can test skils
          • - High training costs, become more skilled so expect more money, suffer stress
    • Improving employer-employee relations
      • Aids communication, helps implement change, motivates workforce, understanding, improve competitiveness
      • Barriers to communication- attitudes, intermediares, lack of common purpose, size of organisation, communication overload
      • Trade unions, work councils, employee groups




Extremely well made mind maps (best i have found so far) will really help me pass my business a level !

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