Unit 2

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  • Unit 2
    • Adenauer's Longevity.
      • Economic Miracle
        • Income increased by 400%
          • Economy growing my 8% per annum and Industry growing by 8.5%.
            • Received $1.5 billion in Marshal aid (Countries like Britain received $3 billion), so could invest in Heavy Industry.
        • Co - Determination - Workers had more representation on factory boards  -Trade Unions were happy meaning there was a low strike record and little distruption to Production.
        • Had the Slogan "No Experiements" - Citizens developed a 'count me out attitude', they could physically see the impact which Adenauer had and therefore continued voting for him .
      • Use of Former Nazis in his administration.
        • Using former Nazi's meant that he had a skillful and experienced Government.
          • 39/49  members of the ministry were former Nazis ( 1949)
            • By the early 1950's 40 - 80 % of officials were former NSDAP members.
      • Anti - Communist Sentiment
        • KPD was banned after the 1953 riots.
        • The SPD were smeared with the 'Red Brush'
          • 5% rule secured Adenauer's position.
    • Economic Recovery
      • Erhard's Social Market Economy.
        • The Third-way some elements were controlled by the Government whiilst other elements avoided intervention.
          • Anti - Trust Laws were used to prevent too many business' holdng power but business owners were inchage of allocating their own raw materials.
      • Growth
        • Unemployment fell form  8.1% - 0.5%
          • Exports were strong.
            • The Economy was growing by 8% per year.
        • Key reasons for Growth
          • Marshall Aid ($1.5 billion) acted as psychological prop for both citizens and other countries.
          • When the Korean War broke out in 1950 due to  Adenauer's relations with the West, the FRG essentially filled America's role by providing muntion and other exports whilst America were fighting.
          • Adenauer's focus on intergration - The ECSC - This allowed Adenauer to crate strong relations and easily export and import goods.
    • Foreign Polciy
      • The Hallstien Doctine.
        • Cut off relations with the GDR and any countries who formed diplomatic relations  with the GDR.
        • The GDR was seen as the 'Second German State'
      • The ECSC - The 1951 paris Summit - A single authority merging the coal and steal industries.
        • July 1952 it began to function by 1957 it became the EEC
      • NATO
        • 1948 - EDO preventing German resurgence.
          • US felt that this was too European and there should be an Alantic alliance - To make the USSR aware that the US were not going to except any expansion of soviet influence.
            • Stalins Note 1952  - Proposed a united Neutral Germany  - Refused.
              • 1953  - FRG Join NATO.
                • 1961 - FRG had 350,000 soilders - 2nd strongest force in NATO
    • Berlin
      • The Berlin Crisis
        • Khrushchev issued the Berlin Ultimantium (1958)  - The FRG had 6 months to declare Berlin as a neutral, free city.
          • FRG rejected this.
            • When JFK came to power Khrushchev thought he would be easy to manipulate - Wrong - JFK increased defence spending.
      • The Wall
        • Adenauer didn't visit Berlin until 9 days after the wall was built.
          • "A wall is better then a war" (JFK)
        • The US had effectivley acknowledged the GDR by tolerating the building of the wall, the FRG had to accept this fact also.
    • Adenauer's resignation
      • SPD changed it's approach.
        • Under the 1959 Bad Godseburg Programme the SPD became the 'People's Party'
          • They supported alliance with  the West
      • Politcal Miscalcualtions.
        • 1960 Presidential candidate
          • No-one obvious to replace his Chancellor role.
          • Seen as arrogant and selfish in his own party - Weakened his position.
        • Not visiting Berlin until 9 days after the wall went up .
      • Der Spiegel Affair
        • 1962 the Der Spiegel magazine (Political) wrote an article criticising the Government
          • Strauss saw this as Treason.
            • Carried out Nazi style night arrests.
              • 5 FDP minsters resigned in protest.
                • Adenauer supported this high handed action.
                  • FDP said they would remain in the coalition if Strauss resigned and Adenauer resigned by 1963,
      • FDP
        • Disagreed with Adenauer's uncompromising attitude towards the GDR and USSR.
          • Broke away in 1956 under Dehler.
  • SPD weakness'
    • Aimed at the working classes but society was becoming more and more middle class due to the economic miracle.
      • Opposed Erhard's Social Market economy.
    • Adenauer's Longevity.
      • Economic Miracle
        • Income increased by 400%
          • Economy growing my 8% per annum and Industry growing by 8.5%.
            • Received $1.5 billion in Marshal aid (Countries like Britain received $3 billion), so could invest in Heavy Industry.
        • Co - Determination - Workers had more representation on factory boards  -Trade Unions were happy meaning there was a low strike record and little distruption to Production.
        • Had the Slogan "No Experiements" - Citizens developed a 'count me out attitude', they could physically see the impact which Adenauer had and therefore continued voting for him .
      • Use of Former Nazis in his administration.
        • Using former Nazi's meant that he had a skillful and experienced Government.
          • 39/49  members of the ministry were former Nazis ( 1949)
            • By the early 1950's 40 - 80 % of officials were former NSDAP members.
      • Anti - Communist Sentiment
        • KPD was banned after the 1953 riots.
        • The SPD were smeared with the 'Red Brush'
          • 5% rule secured Adenauer's position.
    • Opposed Adenauer's moves to allign with the West.

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