Unit 1

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  • Unit 1
    • The End of War
    • Potsdam
      • Attended by Britain, America and Russia
      • The 4 D's were reaffirmed.
        • Denazification - Nuremburg decided
        • It was agreed that all munition factories would be destroyed.
        • Terriotorial
          • Disagreed on the amount of land and Ideologies
    • Denazification
      • Soviet Zone
        • Former Nazis recieved the lowest ration cards.
          • Intertinment camps were created - 43,000 German died.
        • In 1947 a General Ammensty whereas released whereby anyone no matter their past could be seen as 'innocentt' if they helped to create a Socialist Society.
        • They simply replaced Nazism with Marxist-Lennism.
      • The West
        • At first they felt that all Germans held collective guilt but then they looked at everyone as individuals - 131 Law
          • Persil Certificates 1945 -  Where you could get  a testionomy from a priest or collegue to prove your innocence.
        • Focused on re-education and reconstruction
          • Textbooks were re-written.
            • Former Nazis were used in Government and Uni administrations.
      • Issues
        • A lot of Nazis were in hiding or escaped i.e Josef Mengle
          • There were no replacements and were needed so society could function.
            • Inconstiency across the four zones caused resentment amongst the citzens.
      • Nuremburg trials.
        • Allies were the judges.
        • All former Nazis stated they were not Guilty.
          • 7 death sentences including Goering.
            • A lot of Germans felt detached.
    • Economic and Political developments.
      • The East  -Political
        • Pieck and Ulbricht flown from Moscow in 1945 to ensure communism would be established at the end of the War.
          • June 1945 - SMAD began work in Berlin.
            • July 1945  -5 Lander established - Mayors Put in. SED officals were in charge of the police etc.
        • The SED were the ruling Party.
      • The East  -Economic.
        • Whole industrial plants shipped  to Russia.
        • Industry was nationlised.
          • By 1949 60% of Commerce and Factories were nationalised.
          • Intial Aim - Take as much as possible.
            • July 1945 - New system of centralised banking.
      • The West - Economic
        • First Level of Industry Plan - Reduced to  50-55% of the 1938 level.
          • Second Level of Industry plan - Increase  70-75% of the 1938 level.
        • Intial Aim - Eliminate Germany's war potential.
        • Truman Doctrine - The last straw to contain Communism.
          • Marshall Aid- Was offered to all Countries but Russia rejected this.
            • 1947 - Bizonia was formed.
    • Creation of the FRG and GDR.
      • FRG
        • 5% rule introduced  - The Basic Law
          • Creation was Low Key
            • First Elections (1949)
              • CDU//CSU  -139 seats and the SPD had 131 seats.
                • Adenauer = Chancellor
      • GDR
        • Creation was with huge celebrations  -New Communist State
          • SED wrote the constiution.
            • Elections delayed for a year to ensure SED support.
    • Currency Reform.
      • The West
        • The Reichmark was worthless - Trading on the Black Market occured and work absences were high.
          • The West introduced the Deutschmark . (20th June 1948.)
            • 17th June 1948 - Trizonia forms.
      • The East
        • A criminal offence to have possesion of the Deutschmark.
        • Felt it broke the single economic unit agreement at Potsdam
          • 23rd June 1945 - Introduce the Eastmark
    • Berlin Blockade
      • Soviet reaction to currency reform.
      • Blocked all road access to Berlin.
        • West had to take to the air to deliver supplies.
          • 1.5 million tonnes of supplies was given and a plane landed every 3 mintues
        • The airlift lasted from June 1948 - May 1949.
  • The War Legacy
    • 1/4 of homes and 1/2 of schools destroyed
    • 6.5 million German soilders died.
    • Soviet soilders raped Woman
    • Towns were destroyed
  • Reparation figure set at $20 billion
  • Russia recieved the most
  • By 1945 there were 4,000 new teaching assistants and traniee teachers.
    • 520,000 Governemnt officals and those in  industry had been dismissed from office by 1948

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