Tourism

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  • Created on: 01-06-16 14:24
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  • Tourism
    • The global growth of tourism has seen the exploitation of a range of different environments for holiday makers
      • reasons for global growth in tourism
        • social and economic
          • people wealthier so have larger disposable income, most families with 2 working parents
          • smaller families are cheaper to take on holiday
          • car ownership has grown
          • more leisure time and longer holidays
          • higher life expectancy, more retired with time to go on holiday
        • Improvements in technology
          • travel is quick and easy, motorways, air travel
          • online booking
        • Expansion of holiday choice
          • 1970s onwards
          • cheap package holidays
          • Ecotourism and extreme tourism
        • Over last 60 years
      • The potential of cities, mountains and coastal areas for the development of tourism
        • mountains
          • scenery,
          • activities
            • walking and climbing
            • skiing, snowboarding
          • e.g. Alps, Rockies
        • Coastal areas
          • beaches and sea
          • activities
            • swimming, snorkelling
            • fishing, water skiing
          • e.g. Spain, Caribbean
        • Cities
          • culture
            • museums, art galleries
          • entertainment
            • bars, restaurants, theatres
          • shopping
          • e.g.London, Paris, Rome, New York
      • The economic importance of tourism to countries in contrasting parts of the world
        • helps the economy grow
          • creates jobs
          • increases income of businesses that support the tourism industry
        • France - tourism generated 35bn euros in 2006 and 2 million jobs
        • poorer countries are more dependeant on tourism
          • UK tourism 3% GNP Kenya 15% GNP
    • Effective management strategies are the key to the continuing prosperity of tourist areas in the UK
      • LAKE DISTRICT NATIONAL PARK CASE STUDY
      • contribution of tourism to the UK economy
        • 2008 32 million overseas visitors to the UK
          • London has half the visitors
        • countryside, historic landmarks, churches, cathedrals, castles, palaces
        • London has half the visitors
        • 2007 £114bn to the economy 1.4 million jobs
      • impact of external factors on visitor numbers to the UK
        • weather - wet summer
        • world economy - recession means less go on holiday aborad
        • Exchange rate
          • if low it is cheaper to visit so more people come
        • terrorism+conflict
          • July 2005, tourism fell
        • Major events
          • Liverpool 08 capital of culture
          • London 2012 olympics
      • Butler model
        • 1. exploration
          • 2. Involvement
            • 3. Development
              • 4. consolidation
                • 5. Stagnation
                  • 6. Rejuvenation or Decline
                    • facilities shut. decline. run down
                    • rejuvenated, more visitors new facilities
                  • negative impact on environment. less attractive. poor facilities
                • big part of economy. numbers level off
              • more come. control from locals to big companies
            • locals provide facilities to attract more visitors
          • small numbers attracted by scenery-no facilities
    • mass tourism has advantages for an area but strategies need to be in place to reduce the likelihood of long-term damage
      • TROPICAL TOURIST AREA MASS TOURISM
      • Tourism on a large scale to one country or region. This equates to the Development and Consolidation phases of the Butler tourists resort life-cycle model.
      • The positive and negative effects of mass tourism on the economy and environment
        • economy
          • +
            • money for local economy
            • creates jobs
            • increases income of industries that supply tourism
          • -
            • profit is kept by large travel companies not local economy
        • environment
          • +
            • income can be re-invested into the environment
          • -
            • transport for tourists releases greenhouse gases that cuase global warming
            • tourists increase litter. increased sewage causes river polution
            • can destroy natural habitat, damage coral reefs etc.
        • Social
          • +
            • more jobs= more young people going to stay in the area
            • improved infrastructure benefits locals
            • income can be re-invested into community projects
          • -
            • jobs are poorly paid and seasonal
      • strategies for maintaining the importance of tourism in the area and reducing its negative effects
        • reduce negative impacts
          • improve public transport
            • reduces congestion and pollution
          • limit visitors to sensitive environments
            • reduces damage
          • provide lot of bins
            • reduces litter
        • importance of tourism maintained, keep them coming
          • build new facilities and improve existing ones
          • reduce negative tourist impacts that make the area less attractive
          • advertise the area
          • improve transport infrastructure
          • offer new activities
          • make it cheap to visit
    • Extreme environments are susceptible to environmental damage from the development of tourism
      • the attraction of extreme environments to tourists
        • ideal for adventure holiday activities
        • different, exciting , new
        • risk, danger, harsh conditions
        • wildlife
        • scenery
      • the increased demand for adventure holidays
        • improvements in transport links
          • China - tibet railway
        • more affordable as more disposable income
        • more popular due to TV programmes and adverts
      • the impact of tourism on an extreme environment
        • ecosystems are delicately balanced because it is so difficult for life to survive in the harsh conditions there. Tourists can upset this balance
        • oil spills kill animals
        • deforestation to provide fuel for trekers
        • no toilets, ground used, rivers become polluted
        • wildlife disturbed
        • trample plants
        • introduce new species and diseases
      • ANTARCTICA EXTREME ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY
    • Sustainability requires the development of ecotourism
      • GALAPAGOS ISLANDS ECO-TOURISM
      • the need for stewardship and conservation
        • Stewardship: the personal responsibility for looking after things, in this case the environment. No one should damage the present or future environment.
        • conservation: The careful and planned use of resources in order to manage and maintain th enautral environment for future genertions.
      • a consideration that this form of tourism can contribute to sustainable devlopment
        • improves the quality of life for the people
        • protects the environment for future generations, doesn't deplete resources
        • build schools and health centres
        • no damage to the environment
      • small scale tourism that doesn't harm the environment and benefits the local people
      • benefits
        • for locals
          • better stable incomes
          • community projects funded by tourism e.g. schools, water tanks
        • economic
          • jobs
          • helps economy gorw
          • make money by selling local produce and crafts
        • Environmental
          • encouraged to conserve the environment
          • reduces poaching and hunting, tourists want to see these animals
          • renewable energy
          • waste is carefully disposed of

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