Theories of C+D (Marxism)

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  • Theories of C+D (Marxism)
    • Causes of       Crime:            +capitalism is criminogenic so cannot exist without causing crime.
      • Gordon - Criminogenic Capitalism:
    • Who commits Crime: +Everyone
      • Working Class: +Utilitarian Crime - e.g. shoplifting food to feed family.     +Non-Utilitarian Crime - Crime with no purpose is committed as symbolic resistance, and because of alienation.
        • +Most commonly caught and criminalised.
      • Middle Class: +Capitalism makes the middle classes greedy as they are not happy with what they already have so try to gain more. e.g, not paying taxes on extra income so avoid losing as little  money as possible.
        • +Find it easier to talk their way out of being punished. +Sometimes are criminalised to keep up appearances that the system is working fairly.
          • Governments and Corporations:+Commit crimes due to greed, avoid laws which may limit their income. E.g, Green crimes are committed because laws will not be made to prevent them.
            • Governments make laws in the interest of capitalism.
              • Chambliss - The state of law making:
          • Rieman - The more likely a crime is to be committed by the rich, the less likely it is to be treated as criminal.
      • Governments and Corporations:+Commit crimes due to greed, avoid laws which may limit their income. E.g, Green crimes are committed because laws will not be made to prevent them.
        • Governments make laws in the interest of capitalism.
          • Chambliss - The state of law making:
    • Crime Reduction: +Revolution - if there was a revolution which destroyed capitalism, crimes would be reduced.
    • Subcultural Theory: +Some forms of crime, such as non-utilitarian, are just examples of symbolic resistance amongst subcultures (WC,Youths,EM)     +Youths are not controlled by capitalist ideology or economic pressure. +Hebdige - Capitalism neutralises and sells back deviant youth culture, this is known as ideological incorporation
    • Neo-Marxism: +Moral Panics are used to divert attention away from issues with capitalism. E.g, the myth of black criminality divides society to divert attention away from capitalism.    +Ideological Control -  +Fully social theory of deviance (Walton and Young) -
      • Taylor, Walton & Young - Critical Criminology:
    • Links to Make: +Globalisation- +Punishment - +Social Distribution - +Media -
    • Evaluation -
      • Positives:       +Brings attention to corporate crime, and looks at who makes laws.     +Is clearly applicable to modern society, as it looks at state and green crime, as well as global capitalist exploitation. +Shows the relationship between capitalism and crime.
      • Negatives:       +The solution is not realistic.        +Doesn't explain crime in communist societies or low crime rate in some capitalist societies.     +The criminal justice system does act against the higher classes.

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