The northern rebellion

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  • The Northern Rebellion
    • Numbers and types of people involved
      • No more than 6000 rebels raised, mainly consisting of gentry. There is evidence that they had to pay some commoners to take part.
      • There was little popular support and no foreign help was sent. The Pope issued the excommunication too late to raise more catholic support.
      • However, the gentry had access to money and resources and another rebellion was started near Carlisle.
        • The Carlisel rebellion only raised 3000 troops though, and was easily defeated.
    • Location
      • Overall, the rebellion was too far north to be a threat, and the area affected was the smallest of all Tudor rebellions.
      • The furthest south they got was Tadcaster, south of York.
    • Aims and grievances
      • Jobs that had traditionally gone to local families were now going to outsiders.  This meant the Earls of Northumberland and Westemoorland were declining in wealth and status.
        • As a result, the ancient nobility of the north were feeling insecure and alienated from court.
          • Elizabeth had appointed Protestant exile, James Pilkington, as Bishop of Durham, and had built up the power of Sir John Foster, one of Northumberland's main rivals.
        • Many of the rebels from the lower order were promised pay if they joined the Earls, but some left if they weren't paid.
        • Westmoorland's poverty was so great he had to borrow money in order to remain solvent- no hope of rewards from Elizabeth.
      • Origin of the rebellion lay in a plan for Mary to be married to the Duke of Norfolk and be named heir. They didn't want to forcibly remove Elizabeth though.
        • The rebels attempted to march to where Mary was being kept and free her, but she was moved before they arrived.
          • Before the rebellion, the Earl of Westmoorland said religion wasn't a reason for the uprising, but then claimed it was during the rebellion.
            • May have been a tactic to raise more support from the catholics.  There were strong catholic influences in the people who launched the revolt.
    • Actions
      • The rebels attempted to march south, but didn't get very far.
      • Wanted to release Mary from prison, but she was moved.
      • Captured Durham Cathedral, threw the Protestant Communion table out and held a Catholic mass- destroyed the English Bibles.
      • Captured Barnard Castle and Hartlepool, a port through which foreign help could arrive.  However, foreign help never did arrive.
    • Government Response
      • The rebels turned bak north when they heard rumours of the size of Warwick's royal force being sent to meet them.
      • 450 rebels executed, including Northumberland.  Authorised 700 executions.


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