The heart

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  • The heart
    • Exercise
      • When you exercise you respire more
      • increases amount of CO2 in body
      • The brain sends signals to heart causing it to contract more frequently
    • Blood vessels
      • Arteries
        • Carry blood under pressure
        • Strong and elastic walls
        • walls are thick compared to size of lumen. Contain thick layers of muscle to make them strong
      • Capillaries
        • Really small
        • Carry blood close to every cell in body to exchange substances with them
        • They have permeable walls ( one cell thick for diffusion. They supply food and oxygen and take away CO2
      • Veins
        • The blood is at low pressure, so the walls don't need to be thick
        • Tthey have a bigger lumen to help blood flow despite low pressure
        • They have valves to keep the blood flowing in one direction
    • Heart rate
      • The speed in which the heart contracts.
    • Hormonal system
      • When an organism, is threatened the adrenal glands release adrenaline
        • This binds to receptors in heart causing the cardiac muscle to contract more frequently, so heart rate increases and heart pumps more blood
        • This increases the oxygen supply to the tissues, getting the body ready for action
    • Labels
      • Pulmonary artery
      • Pulmonary vein
      • Semi-lunar valve
      • Biscupid valves
      • Triscupid valves
      • Right ventricle
      • Left ventricle
      • Right atrium
      • Left atrium
      • Aorta
      • vena cava
    • The design
      • The right atrium of the heart receives de oxygenated blood from the body
      • The de oxygenated blood moves through the right ventricle which pumps it to the lungs
      • The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
        • The oxygenated blood then moves to the left ventricle where it is pumped around the whole body
      • The left ventricle has a much thicker wall than the right because it needs more muscle to pump the blood around the whole body, which means the blood is under higher pressure
      • The valves prevent backflow


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