The Cell

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  • The Cell
    • Cell Membrane
      • the outer boundary of cell
      • made up of a double layer of lipid molecules and associated proteins
      • seperates internal& external environment of cell
      • determines which substances get into & out of the cell
    • Cytoplasm
      • thick fluid inside the cell where the cell contents are disolved or suspended
      • 75-90% water
      • contains dissolved & suspended substances of the cell
    • Organelles
      • specialised structures that are suspended in the cytoplasm
      • golgi apparatus (golgi body)
        • flattended membranous bags stacked on top of each other
        • modifies proteins
        • package proteins into vesicles for secretion from the cell
      • endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
        • pairs of parallel membranes
        • connects cell membrane with nuclear  membrane
        • provides a surfaceon which chemical reactions can occur
        • channels can be used for transport or storageof materials
        • rough ER (rER): has ribosomes
        • smoothER (sER): no ribosomes
      • ribosomes
        • little black dots
        • 2 types
          • free ribosomes: floatingin the cytoplasm
          • attached ribosomes: stuck onto something
        • join together amino acids to make proteins
      • mitochondria
        • structues that are spread throughout the cytoplasm
        • two membranes:
          • outer membrane: smooth
          • inner membrane: folded
            • increases surfacearea which increases rate of absorption
        • to release  energy for the cell
      • nucleus
        • control center of cell
        • contains genetic  material
        • nuclear  membrane
          • outside of nucleus
          • has lots of holes
            • nuclear pores
              • nuclear  membrane
                • outside of nucleus
                • has lots of holes
                  • nuclear pores
                    • big molecules can pass throughgaps
              • big molecules can pass throughgaps
        • nucleoplasm
          • jelly-like substance that fills nucleus and suspends DNA & nucleolus
        • nucleolus
          • center of nucleus
          • where RNA lives
      • lysosomes
        • small spheres
        • contains enzymes that can break down proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, some carbohydrates& worn-out organelles
      • centrioles
        • pair of cylinders
        • located near nucleus
        • involved in reproduction of the cell
    • Cytoskeleton
      • microfilaments & microtubules
      • give the cell it's shape
      • assist in the movement of materials or organelles of the whole cell
    • Inclusions
      • substances that aren't part of the cell structure but sometimes get found in the cytoplasm

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