The Periodic Table (C3)

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  • Created by: charj1414
  • Created on: 12-04-16 19:40
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  • The Periodic Table (C3)
    • History of The Periodic Table
      • Elements could only be categorised by physical properties, chemical properties and their RAM.
        • Due to no idea of electrons, protons. Elements were arranged in RAM order.
      • Newland's Law of Octaves
      • Mendeleev
        • Left gaps that predicted new elements
        • Ordered the elements in terms of RAM but left gaps for transition elements.
          • When the predicted elements were discovered they fit in the gaps.
    • The Modern Periodic Table
      • Sub-atomic particle discovery meant the Periodic Table was arranged in terms of atomic number, an organised in groups.
      • Now arranged using their electronic structure
        • Further from the positive nucleus, the negative electrons have weaker attraction.
    • Group 1 Elements (Alkali Metals)
      • Melting and boiling points DECREASE
      • LOW DENSITY. First three are less dense than water.
      • Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Caesium.
      • Reactivity INCREASES as you go down
        • Always form 1+ ions, outer electron more easily lost due to increased distance and shielding.
      • REACT WITH WATER
        • Lithium, Sodium and Potassium float on water and move and fizz.
        • They produce hydrogen. They form hydroxides which dissolve in the water to make an ALKALINE solution.
        • 2Na + 2H20 ---> 2NaOH + H2
    • Group 7 Elements (Halogens)
      • Reactivity DECREASES as it's harder to gain another electron due to increased distance.
      • Melting and boiling points INCREASE.
      • FLUORINE (gas)
        • CHLORINE (gas)
          • BROMINE (liquid)
            • IODINE (vapour)
            • IODINE (solid)
      • A more reactive halogen displaces a less reactive one from it's salt solution.
    • Transition Elements
      • Usually have more than one ion
        • Fe2+ is GREEN
        • Fe3+ is BROWN
      • Compounds are colourful due to the transition ion they contain
        • Colours in pottery glazing and gemstones due to transition ions
          • Potassium Chromate is YELLOW
            • Potassium Manganese is PURPLE
              • Copper sulfate is BLUE
                • Colours in pottery glazing and gemstones due to transition ions
                  • Potassium Chromate is YELLOW
                    • Potassium Manganese is PURPLE
                      • Copper sulfate is BLUE
        • Used for catalysts
          • Nickel: For the hydrogen -ating alkenes for margarine
          • Iron: Haber process
          • Manganese Oxide: for decomposing hydrogen peroxide

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