The Indian Mutiny causes

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  • The Indian Mutuny
      • India became de-industrialised and debt ridden due to Britain's policy of economic exploitation
        • e.g. The landlord system eroded the caste system by higher prices of tax from British developers
      • Trade included a duty of paying VA percent. Britain payed 2% with woollen goods to India however India payed 20% for silk and 30% for wool when exported to britain
      • Abolition of monopoly trade in 1813 of EIC and the introduction of free trade in 1833 increased the exploitation of Indian economy
      • British economic exploitation caused all classes to suffer. It made India undeveloped
      • Distrust hardened due to Indians being denied jobs in all high civil and military jobs as they were being reserved by Britain for europeans
      • Creation of new administrative cadre
        • Lack of personal touch between ruler and ruled led to mis-trust in the administrative set up
        • Replaced Persian colonial rulers by Britain which created hardships to all sections
      • Doctrine of Lapse bought Indian states under British rule. British would have been the heads of the army
      • The India Act gave the government the power to conduct politics in India without the influence of the EIC
        • e.g Dalhousie announced that if a ruler died without a heir then the state would be reverted to British
      • Belief in God made British feel superior and caused distrust with natives
      • Christian missionaries were sent to disrupt (check) the Hindus worshipping many Gods and tried to convert people to Christianity
      • Indians felt that their religion was in danger. During famines many Indian orphans became Christian
      • Erosion of culture through 'westernalisation'
    • CAUSE
      • Initiated by the issue of a new gunpower cartridge for the Enfield rifle in 1857
      • Rumours spread that cow and pig fat was used to make the new cartridge. Cows are seen as holy to Hindus and pigs are seen as unclean to muslims
      • The resentment of British taxation and seizing of land got enhanced due to the gunpowder issue
      • This led to doens of units of theIndian army to join peasant armies in a widespread rebelion


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