The February, 1917, Revolution

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  • Created on: 07-04-18 10:32
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  • The February, 1917, Revolution
    • Origins
      • Opposition
        • 14 August 1917: Duma dissolved
          • July 1917: Duma reassembled due to mistrust of the Tsar
        • Appeal to replace the cabinet was dismissed
          • 236 of 422 Duma members formed a 'Progressive Bloc'
            • Aimed to work with the Tsar to prevent revolution by making concessions
              • The Tsar refused to work with them
                • They formed the Zemgor
                  • Highlighted the failures of Nicholas II
                  • Showed an alternative to Tsarism
        • HOWEVER: Marxists only had a limited influence from exile
      • Economic and social factors
        • 1916: Grain yield dropped
        • Inflation due to grain hoarding
        • Grain requisitioning
        • Army given first use of food and transport
        • Living costs increased by 300%
        • HOWEVER: Many of the peasants were more focused on feeding themselves rather than revolting
      • Nicholas II
        • 1915: Made himself commander in chief
          • Alexandra left in charge under the influence of Rasputin
          • All military failures reflected directly on him
          • Commanders appointed by social class over skill
        • November 1916: Milyukov declared a vote of no confidence in the Tsar
        • December 1916: Monarchists wanted to replace Nicholas
        • HOWEVER: Without the war, opposition to the Tsar may not have increased
          • Was opposition to Nicholas the result of the war rather than him as a person and ruler
      • World War One
        • Poor administration
        • Army lacked equiptment
        • Prohibition of alcohol lost revenue and caused social unrest
        • 1914-1919: Government expenditure reached 30 million roubles
        • 1916: More soldiers deserting
          • Generals began supporting a military coup
        • 27 February 1917: The Army turned against the government
          • Attacked the royal train
        • HOWEVER: Wouldn't have caused the Revolution without underlying social and economic grievances
          • Short term trigger
    • Events
      • Strikes in major factories
      • International Women's Day march became a riot for bread
      • Mensheviks set up the Petrograd Soviet
      • Nicholas II abdicated
      • Dual Authority became de facto government
    • Impact
      • New form of government
        • Provisional Government
        • Democracy
          • HOWEVER: Unelected body made up of old Duma members
      • Remained in World War One
      • Opposition to the Provisional Government and eventual overthrow in October

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