Teleological Argument

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  • Created on: 29-10-20 14:36
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  • Teleological Argument
    • Aquinas' 5th way
      • Found in Summa Theologica
      • He states natural bodies fulfilled their function as a result of design not chance
        • Something lacking intelligence cannot move towards fulfilling its purpose without an intelligent mover
        • Archer & Arrow analogy
          • An arrow must be directed by an archer to reach its target (guiding intelligence -God)
      • Known as 'Concept of Governance'
    • William Paley
      • Proposed the Watchmaker analogy in his Natural Theology
      • Watchmaker Analogy
        • He stated if one had found a watch on the ground, one would think it to have been designed
          • the complexity of the watch would mean it had an intelligent designer
            • The universe is also complex, suggesting it had an intelligent designer (God)
        • He used other examples too
          • how the instinct of birds ensure they sit on their eggs while their babies grow inside them
          • The eye was intricately designed to help us see
            • "eye alone is proof of God's designing power"-Paley
    • 'Design qua purpose'
      • God designed the natural world so that everything not only had a purpose, but was capable of fulfilling that purpose
    • Design qua regularity
      • Some guiding intelligence had pre-determined the placement of things to allow regularity of motion
        • Example: relationship between planets and gravity between them
    • The Anthropic Principle
      • Conditions on Earth are perfect for humans to thrive
      • Brendon Carter proposed 2 forms of this principle
        • Weak form
          • Considers that our location in the universe is perfect in being compatible with our existence
        • Strong form
          • The universe must be such as to admit the conditions of it are perfect
      • Frederick Tennant
        • DEVELOPED Anthropic Principle by providing evidence
          • 1) World provides things needed  to survive
          • 2) The world cannot only be observed but can be rationally analysed to deduce its workings
          • 3) Process of evolution, through natural selection, has led to development of intelligent human life so we can observe and analyse the world
      • Okham's Razor
        • Richard Swinburne says that the simplest conclusion for the order of the universe is due to an intelligent designer
        • 'The simplest conclusion is probably true'
    • The Aesthetic Principle
      • The concept & appreciation of beauty
        • Tennant claims we appreciate aesthetics as a result of a benevolent God, who wants to enjoy this world
          • Tennant says awe & wonder of things in the world brings us closer to God
    • Successes of the Teleological Argument
      • Succeeds in proving existence of God as it is 'A POSTERIORI'
      • INDUCTIVE - Paley's watchmaker analogy is more probable than not so it is rational to agree with its conclusion
      • Many would agree that where there is design, there is a designer
      • Anthropic principle is convincing as human survival has relied on the precise manner in which the universe is created with its perfect conditions
      • "presents itself as vivid, accessible and commonsensical with its feet firmly on the ground" - Colin Crowder on the Design Argument


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