T2 Cells & Control

  • Created by: egrnbrg
  • Created on: 10-03-19 15:55
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  • T2 Cells & Control
    • Mitosis/Cell Division
      • Interphase - chromosome copying
        • Prophase -nucleus break down, SF appear
          • Metaphase -chromosome middle line up on SF
            • Anaphase - separated chromosome  on SF
              • Telophase - membrane + nuclei formed
                • Cytokinesis - cell surface membrane separates cells in plants
                • daughter cells 46 chromosomes
                  • Diploid, Haploid -half
        • 2 attached X shapes
      • Cancer tumours=    cell divides uncontrollably
      • Stem Cells: embryonic, adult + meristem cells
        • Replace faulty cell but may cause cancer
    • Animal Growth
      • Plant Growth
        • mitosis in meristems, elongation, differentiation
          • Specialised cells: root hair cells, xylem cells
      • mitosis, cell differentiation =specialised 4 function
        • Specialised cells: red blood cell, fat cell, nerve cell, muscle cell
      • Percentile charts
    • The Brain
      • Cerebellum (back) -coordination, balance, movement
        • Mendulla Oblongata (connects brain 2 spinal cord) - heart, breathing rate + reflexes
          • Cerebral hemispheres- learning, memory, voluntary movement
          • Spinal Cord damage = reduced flow of info to brain  + body
            • Nerve Damage = loss of feeling in legs
              • Neck Damage = loss of feeling in arms + legs
            • Brain Tumour can squash parts of brain, cut out by radiotherapy- X-ray + chemotherapy-injection, blood-brain barrier
      • CT = X-ray + PET scans= injection
      • Central Nervous System = brain +spinal cord
        • Stimulus --> Receptor--> Sensory neurone--> Relay neurone (in spinal cord)---> Motor neurone--> Effector--> Response
          • Axon carries impulses away from cell body
            • Dendrite receives impulses
              • Myelin Sheath insulation for neurone, fast travels, energy
                • Synapse= small gap where 2 neurones meet
        • Reflex Arc: involuntary response, avoids brain
      • The Eye = sensory receptor
        • Receptor cells in Retina
          • Ciliary Muscles CONTRACT NEAR, RELAX FAR
            • Cornea focuses light
              • Lens bends light rays
          • Cones-Colour Rods-Light Intensity
            • Iris contract to constrict pupil in BRIGHT light, dilates pupil in DIM light
        • Eye Problems  Cataracts (cloudy), Colour (cones) blindness, Long/Short sight (eyeball or cornea)
          • Cataracts use artificial lens
            • Short sight use diverging lens, long sight use converging lens, glasses/laser
              • No correction 4 colour blindness

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