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  • Synapses
    • A junction between a neurone and the next cell (another neurone or an effector cell)
    • Gap between the cells = synaptic cleft
    • Presynaptic neurone has a swelling cause the synaptic knob.
      • This contains synaptic vesicles filled with neurotrasmitters.
    • Action potential reaches synaptic knob of presynaptic membrane
      • Action potential causes voltage-gated calcium ion channels to open
        • Calcium diffuses into the synaptic knob causes synaptic vesicles to move to presynaptic membrane
          • Diffuse into presynaptic cleft by exocytosis
            • Neurotrasmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to specific receptors on postsynaptic membrane
              • This causes sodium ion channels to open in postsynaptic neurone
                • Initiating depolarisation and if threshold value is reaching an AP is produced
                  • Neurotrasmitter is then removed so response doesn't continue to happen
                    • They are broken down by enzymes
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Acetylcholine
    • Cholinergic synapses
      • Bind to cholinergic receptors
        • Broken down by acetylcholinesterase
  • Nonadrenaline


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