Stress

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  • Stress
    • Long Term
      • Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal
        • stressor activates hypo-pit axis
          • hypo stimulates pit gland
            • pit gland secretes ACTH
              • ATH stimulates adrenal cortex
                • release of cortisol
                  • suppression of immune system
    • Short Term
      • Sympatho-medullary pathway
        • hypo stimulates adrenal medulla
          • secretes adrenaline- prep fight or flight
            • arousal of sympathetic nervous system
              • once over para-sympathetic nervous system takes control
    • Stress related illness
      • Stress and the body
        • increased blood pressure and heart rate can damage blood vessels
        • Arthero-sclerosis
          • fatty build ups due glucose levels remaining high
        • Krantz et al- 39 ppts, blood pressure measured in stressful situation
          • highest contraction of blood vessels also had highest blood pressure
            • stress may relate to cardio-vascular disorders
        • Increaed stress can cause hypertension and coronary heart disease
        • digestion system inhibited, causing ulcers
        • Brady et al- monkeys received shocks following a tone in pairs
          • executive monkey could stop his own shocks by pressing a lever
            • after 23 days exec monkeys began to die of gastric ulceration, other monkeys fine
              • shocks themselves didnt hurt, the stress of pushing buttton caused ulcers
        • Kiecolt-Glaser et al 1984- blood samples first year med students 49M, 26F
          • a)a month before exams, b) during exams , T cell activity measures
            • blood smple during exams contained less T cells
              • stress reduced effectiveness of the immune system
        • Kiecolt-Glaser et al 1995- stress and wound healing, 13 women, 13 control
          • punch biopsy in arm to create small wound, women were Alzheimer's carers (stressful)
            • wound healing took an avg of 9 days longer in carers than control group
              • long term stress has an impact on immune system and healing processes
    • Sources of stress
      • Life Changes - major evens in life e.g. marriage, grief
        • Holmes + Rahe (1967) - link between stress and life changes
          • SRRS - Social readjustment rating scale, formed from 5000 patient records
            • LCU, Life change units measured
        • Rahe et al (1970) - 2500 male navy personnel, self report, health records
          • significant positive correlation found, but small correlation
      • Daily hassles- minor challenges and problems e.g. running late, weight oncerns
        • Delongis et al (1982) - 100 ppts 4 questionnaires every month for a year
          • hassle scale, uplifts scale, life events, health status
            • freq and intensity of hassles sig correlated with poorer health
        • Kanner et al (1981)- 100ppts 45-64 completed questionnaire each months for 9 months
          • rated severity of hassles in thir life
            • certain hassles occurred more frequently e.g. weight concerns
              • high scores more likely to have phy + psy problems
                • hassles linked to stress, uplifts counteract hassles
        • Bouteyre et al (2007)- first year psy students
          • hassles + uplifts scales and Becks depression inventory
            • positive correlation between depression(41%) + total hassles score
              • transition has hassles, may impact development of depression
    • Personality factors
      • Type A- time pressured, competitive, hostile
        • Rosenman et al (1976)- 3154 middle aged men, categorised as type A or B
          • followed for 8.5 years, in that time, 257 heart attacks, 69% type A group
            • Highly Type A are at risk of heart problems
      • Type B- relaxed, not competitive, not hostile
        • Rosenman et al (1976)- 3154 middle aged men, categorised as type A or B
          • followed for 8.5 years, in that time, 257 heart attacks, 69% type A group
            • Highly Type A are at risk of heart problems
      • Hardiness- control, commitment, challnge
        • Kobasa - questionnaires regarding control, commitment and challenge
          • high scores related to fewer stress related symptoms
        • Beasley - life stress of uni students, higher hardiness = reduced phy distress
    • Workplace Stress
      • relationships, pressures, phy env. , role, lack of cotrol
      • Frankenhauser (1975) - 2 groups of workers in sawmill
        • 1) repetitive task, noisy, isolated, little control, 2) different tasks, more control, social oppurtunities
          • stress levels measured, urine samples + blood pressure
            • less control = higher stress levels - high adrenaline and noradrenaline
              • higher rates of headaches, high BP and gastro-intestinal disorders
      • Johansson et al - 14 swedish woodworkers vs 10 cleaners
        • woodworkers -fast paced, isolated, repetitive, low control
          • urine samples tested for adrenaline = noradrenaline levels
            • ww- high risk, levels doubles when arrived at work and continued to rise
              • felt more rushed and irritateed
            • c- low risk, 1.5x normal when arriving but decreased during day
        • cleaners- varied work, more sociable
          • urine samples tested for adrenaline = noradrenaline levels
            • ww- high risk, levels doubles when arrived at work and continued to rise
              • felt more rushed and irritateed
            • c- low risk, 1.5x normal when arriving but decreased during day
    • Stress management
      • Biological
        • Biofeedback
          • gaining control - machine gives info on HR, BP, MT
            • muscle relaxation techniques - meditation
        • Drug Therapy
          • benzo-diazapines- CNS, serotonin + GABA
            • lessons tension + nervousness, calming effect
              • Untitled
          • Beta-blockers - SNS, blocks adrenaline + noradrenaline
            • Lowers HR + BP, prevents flight or fight and panic ttacks
      • Psychological
        • Stress inoculation training
          • conseptualisation- identify stressors, positive thingking
            • Stress management skills- coping e.g. communication, CBT
              • Application to real world- use skills irl
        • Hardiness training
          • focussing - recognse symptoms when stressed
            • reliving stressful encounters- analyse stressful situations
              • self improvement - take on challenges to build confidenc + gain control

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