Statutory Interpretation

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  • Statutory Interpretation
    • Literal Rule
      • Literal meaning of word
      • Whiteley V Chappell
      • Fisher V Bell
      • R V Harris
      • Advantages
        • Parliamentaty Sovereignty is maintained
        • Highlights problems with law to Parliament
          • Fisher V Bell
        • Creates Legal Certaintiy
          • Stock V Frank Jones - Lord Simon
      • Disadvantages
        • Unfair/unjust decisions
          • London and NER V Berriman
        • No effect to intention of Parliament
          • Fisher V Bell and Whiteley V Chappell
        • What if there's multiple definitions?
        • Drafstment dont do job perfectly
    • Golden Rule
      • Narrow approach
        • R V Allen
      • Broad approach
        • Re Sigworth
      • Advantages
        • Prevents absurd/unjust results
          • Re Sigworth
        • Parliament would have intended
        • Respects authority of Parliament
      • Disadvantages
        • Only used in limited circumstances
          • Zander - feeble parachute
        • No clear definition of what an absurd result is
          • Zander - unpredictable safety valve
        • Undemocratic - too much power to judges
    • Mischief Rule
      • Created from Heydons Case 1584
      • Ambiguity in the statue
      • Smith V Hughes
      • Advantages
        • Prevents absurd or unjust results
          • McMonagle V Westminster City Council
        • Flexibility "fill in the gaps"
        • Social, economic and technological circumstances
      • Disadvantages
        • Too much power given to judges
        • Not role of judicary to change laws
          • RCN V DHSS
        • Discovering Parliaments intention is hard
        • Out of date
    • Purposive Approach
      • Purpose of legislation
      • What Parliaments intention was
      • Favoured in Europe
      • Pepper V Hart (referred to Hansard)
      • Advantages
        • Favoured by EU
        • Likely to give effect to intention of Parliament
          • Coltman V Bibby Tankers
        • Similar to Mischief Rule
      • Disadvantages
        • Too much power to judges
        • Allows judges to 'fill in the gaps'
        • Finding Parliaments intetion is not easy
    • Aids to Interpretation
      • Intrinsic
        • Long and short titles
        • Punctuation
        • Schedules
        • Interpretation sections
        • Preamble
      • Extrinsic
        • Previous Acts
        • Dictionaries
        • Text books and legal journals
        • Debates
        • Explanatory notes
    • Rules of language
      • Ejusdem Generis Rule
        • Hobbs V Robertson ltd.
      • Expressio Unius Exclusio Alterius
        • Tempest V Kilner
      • Noscitur a sociis
        • Ireland Revenue Commisioners V Fere

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