Specialised Cells

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  • Specialised Cells
    • Palisade Leaf Cells
      • Are adapted for photosythesis
      • Packed with chloroplasts for photosythesis
      • Tall shape means a lot off surface area exposed down the side for absorbing CO2 from the air in the leaf
      • Thin shape means that you can pack loads of them in at the top of a leaf
    • Guard Cells are adapted to open and close pores
      • Special kidney shape which opens and closes the stomata (pores) in a leaf
      • When the plant has lots of water the guard cells fill with it and go plump and turgid
      • When the plant is short of water, the guard cells lose water and become flaccid, making the stomata close
      • Thins outer walls and thickened inner walls make the opening and closing work
    • Red Blood Cells are adapted to carry oxygen
      • Concave shape gives a big surface area for absorbing oxygen, and helps to pass through capillaries
      • There packed with haemoglobin - the pigment that absorbs the oxygen
      • They have no nucleus, to leave even more room for haemoglobin
    • Sperm and Egg cells are specialised for reproduction
      • Main function off the egg cell is to carry the female DNA and to nourish the developing embryo in the early stages
      • When a sperm fuses with an egg, the eggs membrane instantly changes its structure to stop any more sperm getting in
      • The function of the sperm is to get the male DNA to the female DNA.
        • It has a long tail and streamlined head to help it swim to the egg. it has a lot of mitochondria in the cell to provide energy

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