Sociology- Deaths

  • Created by: Daisymac
  • Created on: 08-03-19 09:05
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  • Deaths
    • What?
      • Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand of the population
      • In 1900 the death rate was 19 but in 2012 it was 8.9
    • Why it has declined?
      • Tranter 1996 argued over three quarters of the decline in death rates from 1850 to 1970 was due to fall in deaths from infectious diseases
      • By the 1950s, Diseases of affluence such as heart disease and cancers were the main cause of death
    • Improved nutrition
      • McKeown 1972 argues that the improved nutrition accounted for up to half the reduction in death rates, especially for cases of TB
      • Wasn't able to explain why women, who receive  a smaller share of family food supply, lived longer than males
      • Also can't explain why deaths from infectious diseases actually rose at a time of improving nutrition
    • Medical improvements
      • Before 1950s, medical improvements played no part in the reduction of deaths from infectious diseases
      • Improved medical knowledge, techniques and organisation has helped to reduce death rates from infectious disease
      • EG. Introduction of antibiotics, immunization, blood transfusion, improved maternity services and NHS in1948
    • Smoking and diet
      • Harper- Biggest reduction by people not smoking
      • But in 21st century, obesity has replaced smoking as the new lifestyle epidemic
      • Deaths from obesity have been kept low as a result of drug therapies
      • Suggests that we may be moving to an American health structure where we  have unhealthy lifestyles but a long lifespan is achieved through costly healthcare
    • Public health measures
      • More effective central and local government with the necessary power to enforce  laws
      • Improvements in housing, better ventilated,less overcrowded, purer water,pasteurization of milk improved sewage disposal
      • Clean Air acts 1952
    • Other social changes
      • Decline of dangerous manual occupations eg. mining
      • Smaller families reduced the rate of transmission of infection
      • Greater public knowledge of causes of illness
      • Higher incomes allowing for a healthier lifestyle
    • Life expectancy
      • Refers to how long on average a person born in a given year can expect to live
      • Males born in England 1900- Men=50 women=56
      • 2017- men=79.2 women=82.9
      • High infant mortality rate in 1900s
    • Class,gender and regional differences
      • Women generally live longer than men
      • Those living in North and Scotland have a lower life expectancy than those in the south
      • WC men in unskilled jobs are 3 times more likely to die before 65 than MC
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