social psychology

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  • social psychology
    • types of conformity
      • compliance
        • public conformity to a bahaviour/view of a group whilst maintaining ones own opinion
          • supported by Asch's research where p's changed their judgement whilst still believing their own perception
      • identification
        • embracing behaviou/views of a group but not maintaining these views when leaving the group
          • supported by Zimbardo's study, p's embraced roles as prison guards didnt continue role outside of experiment
            • individual differences may occour to the extent of which an individual values membership of the group
      • internalisation
        • converting to the groups view even when leaving the group
          • overlaps with identification
    • why people conform
      • evaluation of why people conform
        • normative social influeces supported by Ash's line study, humans are social beings that fear rejection and need social companionship. Ascch found p's didnt want to deviate from majority view as this would make them be wrong or different from the unanimous majority
          • underestimate poeples attachment to a group whcih has been suggested by later research (identification)
          • conformity explanations critisised as it suggests normative & informational are seperate and different, later research suggetss the two compliment each other
      • normative social influence
        • desire to be liked
          • individual will conform to majority behavior whilst holding own view so that they are liked
      • informational social influence
        • desire to be right
          • individuals will watch people in a new surrounding and mimic their behavior as to be right
    • obedience
      • evaluation of obedience
        • reliability:highly controlled environment. all p's conditions were controlled.
        • power of uniform: Bickmans research found that unifrom is an essential criteria in obedience, when ordering people to do things such as pick rubbish up from the street bickman found that people were liely to do this from a police officer rather than someone in regular clothes
        • ethical issues: lack of fully infromed consent. deception. protecting p's from stress. however milgram de-briefed p's and follow ups found no long term harm caused from experiment. Milgram argues that he needed to break ethical boundries to assure his experiment was reliabe
        • questionable validity of experiment
      • milgrams studyto see if people would inflict pain on others under an order. researcher in lab coat gave ordered to ask questions to other participant, when they got them wrong they had to shock them. shocks increased in 15v incraments each time. genuine p. had to watch the other one being hurt. no actual sock was administered.
        • all 40 p's went to 30v
        • 65% went to 450v
          • under most circumstances people will pbey an order that goes against their conscience
            • people can loose their ability to sympathise when occupying role in heirarchy
            • preassure ot obey powerful authority may explain wartimes tragedies such as ww2 as a rsult of situational forced not disposition of perosn doing acts
        • majority of ps showed distress but continued
      • compliance with an order to do an action.
    • why people obey
      • agentic shift
        • when the responsibility for ones actions is guaranteed to be the fault of someone else.
          • supported by Milgram's research, when the researcher took the blame for the actions of the participant the participant continues to administer shocks even though they expressed feelings of uncomfot
            • unclear at which point someone moves from being autonomous to being an agentic state
      • gradual commitment
        • when p's are asked to do a series of small tasks they are likely to obey as its hard to pinpoint where the moral boundry lies
          • also supported by Milgram; p's were asked to administer shocks at 15v increments, this small voltage meant each shock was only a little higher than the last, so it was hard to refuse one when the last had been agreed to
            • individual differences not taken into account; doesn't explain why some obeyed straight away whilst others needed convincing
      • authoritarian personlaity
      • legitimate authority
        • we trust people of social power, such as police because they have legitimate authroity, they are wiser than us and have the capability to punish us, therefore we trust them and will obey
          • supported by power of unifrom study which ssuggests we obey people in unifrom over 'normal' dressed people
    • social influence in everyday life
      • locus of control
        • a scale with 2 plar ends, external locus and internal locus, refers to individual differences in beliefs and expectations regarding what controls their life
          • external locus of control
            • believes outside factors have significant influence over life events, eg star signs & luck
          • internal locus of control
            • believe own choices and actions control their life. accept responsibility for actions and believe their actions bring change in society.
      • how people resist pressure to obey
        • disobedient modesl
        • feeling responsible & empathetic
      • how people resist pressure to conform
        • desire for individation
          • desire to maintain ones own identity which outweighs pressure to conform
        • desire to maintain control
          • people want to be in control of their lives, during group preassure personal freedom may feel threatened
            • supported by Burger: people with high need for control more resistant to conformity. other peoples advice is seen threatening to their personal freedom and self control
              • domeone with high sense of contol wouldnt be threatened by preassure to conform
      • evaluation of independant behaviour
        • oliner&oliner studied 2 groups of non-jews who lived n nazi germany. compared those who rescued those with those who didnt. results showed rescuers had internal locus of control
        • williams & Warchal: 30 uni students, did Aschs line study, those who conformed most were less assertive but didnt score differently on locus of control.
      • role of minority influence in social change
        • suffragettes. MLK. Greenpeae
      • how research into social influence helps us to understand social change
        • social change: when society adopts new beliefs widely accepted as norm
          • how minority becomes majority: consistency, persuasive argument & commitment

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