Social influence

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  • Social Influence
    • Obedience- Milgram
      • 1963
      • Procedure
        • Confederate 'randomly' selected as learner, participant was teacher
        • Experimenter with white lab coat, confederate
        • Learner in other room, strapped to chair, electrodes
        • Word pairs-incorrect answer is punished by shock
        • Standardised prompts if teacher protests
      • Findings
        • 65% continued to 450V
        • None stopped before 300V
        • Qualitative- participants stressed: sweating, shaking, stuttering, etc
        • Some asked about responsibility-agentic state
      • 40 male American volunteers, aged 20-50
        • Population
        • Newspaper ad- study into memory
          • Deception, lack of informed consent
      • Ethics
        • Deception, lack of informed consent
        • Psychological harm?
          • Debriefed
      • Validity
        • Population
        • Ecological
          • Holocaust
        • Demand characteristics? What if guessed shocks weren't real?
        • Hoffling et al
          • 22 nurses given instruction over phone to deliver overdose of drug
            • 21 obeyed
          • Ecological
            • Holocaust
      • Variations
        • Location
          • Yale uni is respected
          • Authority linked to location- experimenter has power within lab
          • In run down office, 48% went to 450V
        • Uniform
          • Legitimate authority
          • When experimenter replaced by citizen (plain clothes), only 20% continued to 450V
        • Proximity
          • When learner not seen/heard, 100% went to 450V
          • When in same room, 40% went to 450V
          • When teacher had to physically shock learner, 30% full obedience
          • If teacher instructed via phone, 20% went to 450V
            • Some gave lower shocks than instructed, some pretended to shock
      • Authoritarian personality
        • Adorno at al
        • Conventional
        • Traditional values
        • Aggression
        • Belief in hierarchy
      • Elms & Milgram- obedient participants are more authoritarian than 'defiant' people
        • Fascism scale
        • Authoritarian personality
          • Adorno at al
          • Conventional
          • Traditional values
          • Aggression
          • Belief in hierarchy
      • Locus of control
        • Rotter
        • Internal feels responsible-unlikely to obey
        • External doesn't feel responsible, likely to obey
    • Minority influence- Moscovici
      • Consistency
        • Synchronic (within group)
        • Diachronic (over time)
      • Commitment
        • SNCC sit ins
        • Bus boycott
      • Flexibility
        • Suffragists/ getts
      • 1969
      • 172 female student participants
        • Groups of 6- 4 pps, 2 confederates
      • Procedure
        • Shown 36 slides, asked if blue/green- answer aloud
        • Consistent minority-  said green in 36 trials
          • 8.4% answers  incorrect
    • Majority influence: Asch
      • 1951, 1955
      • Variations
        • Unanimity- dissenting confederate reduced conformity by 25%
        • Group size- optimum is 3 confederates
        • Task difficulty- NSI when easy, ISI when harder
      • Findings
        • 36.8% conformity
        • 75% conformed at least once
      • Procedure
        • 1 naive pp, 6-8 confederates per group
          • PP sat last/second to last
        • 18 trials, 12 critical
        • 123 participants
          • Male, American, engineering undergrads
      • Validity
        • Temporal/ecological- 1950s America
          • Red scare
          • Perrin & Spencer- 1980s UK
            • 1/396 conformed
          • Smith & Bond- collectivist cultures conform more
          • Lacks mundane realism
        • Population
          • Neto 1995- women conform more than men
      • Ethics- no informed consent, deception

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