Social Influence

  • Created by: ellie0952
  • Created on: 14-11-17 12:23
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  • Social Influence
    • Conformity - When someone gives into implicit pressure
      • Compliance - Temporary behavior change to fit in
      • Identification - Change of behavior to fit with a group as membership is desirable
      • Internalization - Permanent behavior and belief change after being exposed to a group
      • Explanations for conformity
        • Normative social influence - Desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
          • :) - Face validity, Asch :( - reductionist, can't explain non-conformity
        • Informational social influence - Desire to be correct
          • :) - Face validity, Asch :( - reductionist. can't explain non-conformity
      • Asch
        • 123 male university students put into groups with 7 - 9 confederates and were positioned to answer last. When the confederates gave obviously wrong answers 32% conformed on all wrong answers and 75% on at least 1.
          • Lab experiment, androcentric, informed consent, deception
    • Obedience
      • Explanations for obedience
        • The agentic state
          • Act as an agent for another persons will and passes on the consequences of their actions
        • Legitimacy of authority
          • To obey authority we must accept it's legitimate.
            • :) - explains situational obedience, applicable during training exercises. :( - can't explain disobedience or why we obey strangers
        • Authoritarian personality
          • Adrono and Fromm
            • Studies unconscious attitudes to other racial groups in 2,000 middle class white Americans. Those who scored highly had the authoritarian personality.
          • Supported by Elms and Milgram. Non- applicable
        • Situational explanations for obedience
          • Proximity
          • Location
          • Uniform
          • High ecological validity, can't explain disobedience
      • Zimbardo
        • 21 male university students were randomly allocated roles of 'guards' and 'prisoners'. It was intended to last for 2 weeks but was stopped after 6 days due to ethical issues. 4 participants left early due to emotional distress.
          • Lab experiment, androcentric, didn't follow any ethical guidelines.
      • Milgram
        • 40 males (20-50) took part in 'learning' experiment. The teacher gave the confederates electric shock which increased in voltage for every wrong answer. 65% gave the highest voltage (450), all continued to 300 after given 'prods' by the instructor.
          • Lab experiment, No informed consent, deception, caused participants psychological distress.
    • Explanations for resistance to social influence
      • Social Support
        • Having an ally who also dissents is a strong source of defiance. The sooner a person dissents the higher their chance of rallying others
        • :) - Ash and Milgram, face validity, applicable :( - depends on environmental factors, reductionist
      • Locus of control
        • A personality attribute which measure the degree to which people believe they are in control of their own lives
        • Spector
          • Gave LoC test to 157 university students but only used the scale of normative social influence
            • Applicable followed ethical guidelines, Quasi experiment
        • :) - Rotter and Spector, face validity :( - reductionist, low ecological validity, lack mundane realism
    • Majority influence
      • Size of group
      • Unamity
      • Task difficulty
    • Minority influence
      • Consistency
      • Committment
      • Flexability
      • Moscovicic
        • 172 female participants in a 'colour perception' task. Groups of 6 with 2 confederates were shown slides with varying shades of Blue. Condition 1: confederates said all slides were green, participants agreed on 8.2% of trials. Condition 2: Confederates said 24/36 slides were green, participants agreed on 1.25% of trials.
          • Lab experiment, geocentric, no informed consent, deception, groups were artificially created


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