Independent behaviour

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  • Independent     behaviour
    • Explanations of inde behaviour
      • 1) Locus of control
      • 2) Resisting   pressure    to confrom
      • 3) Resisting pressure to obey
    • 1) Locus of Control
      • Rotter  measured this with     questionnaire   and self report method.
      • Internals: Active seekers of information, achievement orientated, able to resist coercion
      • Externals: Not achievement orientated, harder to resist coercion
      • Evaluation  relating to conformity. More internal less ocnformity
      • Atgis (1998)      correlation         between    high scoring external individuals and conformity
        • The more external the individual the harder it is to resist conforming
      • Shute (1975) peer pressure and drug and found that internals were less likely to conform
    • 2)  Resisting pressure to conform
      • Situational factors
        • Prior    commitment
          • People don't like to back track and change their answer after publicly       committing to one
          • Shows they're are easily coerced and influence which could be seen as a weakness
        • Allies  (supporter)
          • Not just about the supporter but the 'quality' of them also. (Allen and Levine (1971)
          • Hornsey (2003) however said when moral reasoning came into it people didn't      conform showing normative influence offers a limited explanation
      • Personality factors
        • Confidence
          • Perrin and Spencer (1981) found with engineering     students that conformity was lower due to confidence in their ability
        • Need for approval
          • The more someone needs approval the more likely they will conform due to normative influence
          • McKelvey and Karr (1988) found less conforming when with a group of friends due to less normative influence and they know and accept you already.
        • Locus of control
          • The more external the individual the harder it is to resist conforming
    • 3) Resisting pressure to obey
      • Situational factors
        • Legitimate authority
          • Over phone and office stats
        • Allies
          • T + L variation
      • Personality factors
        • Authoritarian and LOC
        • Elms and Milgram (1974) found that the Pps who disobey had scores of internal LOC
      • Education
        • Allows us to see what happens when we blindly obey. Means we can resist in similar situations
      • Moral reasoning
        • Kohlberg (1969) gave Pps moral dilemmas. asked why they reacted the way they did.
        • Moral reasoning over social order


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