Sleep - circadian, ultradian, infradian

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  • Sleep
    • Biological rhythms
      • the circadian rhythms
        • sleep wake cycle
          • external clues
          • internal clock
          • important flaw
            • artificial light
              • down to 22hrs - up to 28hrs
          • individual differences
            • cycle length varies 13- 64
            • cycle onset
              • morning people - rise early and go to bed early
              • evening people rise late and go to bed late
        • core body temp
          • lowest 430
          • highest 600 pm
          • trough around lunch - when people dont eat
          • linked with cognitive abilities
            • stories read either at 9am or 3pm
              • 3pm group had higher body temp and retained 8% more material
            • performance on IQ test was higher at 7pm than 9am or 2pm
            • only evidence in lab settings
              • no significant difference in field setting
                • high bt  = increased arousal = cognitive performance
        • hormones
          • cortisol lowest midnight peaks 6am
          • melatonin  + growth hormone peak 12 am
      • infradian and ultradian
        • ULTRADIAN - 5 stages of sleep - first 4, NREM - 5th REM
          • lasts 90 mins
            • awake
              • stage 1
                • stage 2
                  • stage 3
                    • stage  4
                      • stage 5
                        • beta waves  - similar to walking state
                          • activity in visual cortex of the brain
                            • vivid dreams
                      • theta and delta waves
                        • more than 50% delta
                          • parasomnias most likely to occur
                    • delta and theta waves
                      • delta  - lower frequences and greater amplitude
                        • dreaming common but disorganized
                  • theta waves sleep spindles + k-complex
                    • spindles - burst of very rapid brain activity
                      • k complex  linked with memory consolidation
                • alpha + theta  waves
                  • lower fequency greater amplitude
              • alpha and beta waves
                • high frequency - low amplitude
          • assume REM sleep is dreaming sleep
            • dreams recorded outside of REM
              • sometimes no recorded dreams in REM
          • psychological readouts of electrical signs (dreams)
            • theory based on REM sleep
        • INFRADIAN
          • female menstrual cycle
            • pituitary glad  releases hormones -  stimulates follicles in 1 ovary trigger the release of estrogen
              • the ruptured follicle - stimulated  progesterone - increases lining of the womb
                • 2 weeks - no pregnancy  - progesterone reduced  womb lining shed
                  • normally governed by endogenous system
                    • several women living together - no contraceptives  - menstruate at same time - exogenous clues
                      • collected sweat samples
                        • menstraul cycle synced with donor - affected by pheramones
            • PMS  -  has symptoms - increased accidents, lower acheivement accademically
          • SAD - seasonal affective disorder
            • depressed during winter months - recover during summer
              • melatonin and serotonin - more darkness - more melatonin - less serotonin
                • low serotonin associated with depression
            • consequence of disrupted circadian rhythm
              • get up same time go to bed earlier
                • system gets impression times shifting
                  • results similar to jet lag
            • phototherapy
              • lights between 6000 - 10,000 lux
                • maybe due to placebo effect
                  • 32% did improve with placebo effect
            • Untitled

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