Sex and gender - Gender

  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 03-03-19 23:23
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  • Sex and Gender
    • Sex  Biological; determined by hormones, chromosomes and physical differences
      • Female - ** Male - XY
      • Female - oestrogen Male - testosterone
      • Female -  Ovaries    Male - Testes
    • Gender  Social and psychological; masculine, feminine or androgynous behaviour
      • Research Rekers (1974) 3 year programme; 8 year old boy; extinguish feminine behaviours and replace with masculine behaviours
        • Reinforcement and punishment; when 16, described as normal, gender appropriate boy
          • (A) SLT,      longitudinal (D) Highly unethical, case study (can't generalise); social desirability bias
    • Sex-role stereotype Shared expectations that people in a society or culture hold for what is considered acceptable behaviour for each sex
      • Origins Parents, culture, society, media, education
      • Males - aggressive, dominant, breadwinners Females - dependent, submissive, domestic, emotional
      • Research Fagot (1979) 24 young children at home; girls reinforced when playing dress-up and asking for help; boys reinforced for playing with blocks
    • Androgyny Equally displaying both masculine and feminine traits (Must display both)
    • Bem Sex Role Inventory (1974)   Judged how desirable characteristics are for each sex (20 each for masculine, feminine, neutral)
      • Masculine, feminine, androgynous, un-differentiated
      • American students in 1970s (lacks validity);   Test-retest reliability (similar scores when tested a month later)
      • Too simplified - reduces androgyny to a score, only looks at traits, should also look at gender identity and own interests


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