Schizophrenia : classification, reliability and validity

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  • Schizophrenia
    • Classification
      • Positive and  negative symptoms
      • Catatonic/ Paranoid schizophrenia
      • First rank symptoms e.g. auditory hallucinations
      • (DSM IVR) At least 1 month duration of 2 or more positive symptoms.
    • Reliability
      • Consistency of diagnosis
      • DSM re-issued each year to improve reliability
        • Whalley: 0.11 inter- rater reliability correlation
      • Beck et al: 54% agreement on diagnosis
        • Low inter-rater reliability
      • Cultural differences: copeland et al
    • Validity
      • Assessing what it claims to assess
      • Comorbidity:  Suffering from 2 or more mental disorders
        • No pathognomic symptoms: No unique symptoms to disorder
      • Low predictive validity: can't predict development and prognosis
        • Bleuer: 20% fully recover; 40% recover from +ve symptoms; 40% never recover.
    • Szasz
      • Labelling theory
        • Labelling a child as 'strange' leads to a self- fulfilling prophecy
        • 'mentally ill' label removes responsibility from individual
  • Classification
    • Positive and  negative symptoms
    • Catatonic/ Paranoid schizophrenia
    • First rank symptoms e.g. auditory hallucinations
    • (DSM IVR) At least 1 month duration of 2 or more positive symptoms.

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