schaffer and emerson

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  • SCHAFFER AND EMERSON
    • KEY STUDY(1964)
      • Aim
        • Investigate the formation of early attachment in particular the age which they developed
      • Method
        • 60 babies - 31 male, 29 female
          • Glasgow skilled working class families
          • Visited at home every month for the 1st year and at 18 months
        • Asked mothers questions about protest of the day
          • e.g - adult leaving the room (separation anxiety)
      • Findings
        • 25-32 Weeks of age about 50% of babies showed signs of separation anxiety towards mother (specific attachment)
        • 40 weeks 80% of the babies had a specific attachment and almost 30% had multiple attachment
      • A03
        • Good external validity
          • Observational in own homes
            • Behaviour wasn't affected
        • Longitudinal design
          • Same children at different ages, no confounding variables or individual differences
        • Limited sample
          • Same district and social class and same city
    • STAGES OF ATTACHMENT
      • 1. Asocial stage
        • Forming bonds
        • Show some preference for some adults
      • 2. Indiscriminate attachment
        • 2-7 months
        • Recognise and prefer familiar adults
        • Don't usually show separation or stranger anxiety
      • 3.Specific attachment
        • 7 months
        • Start to display stranger and separation anxiety
        • Attachment figure
      • 4. Multiple attachments
        • Secondary attachment
      • A03
        • Problem studying the asocial stage
          • Babies have poor co-ordination and inmoble, had to make judgement
            • Evidence cannot be relied on
        • Conflicting evidence on multiple attachment
          • Not clear when multiple attachments are formed
            • Bowlby 1969 - single main carer before the become capable of developing multiple attachments
            • Van Ijzendoorn et al 1993 - multiple caregivers are the norm , such cultures are called collectivist
        • Measuring multiple attachments
          • Children have playmates aswell as attachment figures and may get distressed when they leave

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