Romantic Music

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  • Romantic 1800-1850
    • Features
      • Uses a large orchestra
      • Exploits the dramatic conflict between soloist and orchestra
      • Often has the emphasis on virtuosic display
      • Often has very difficult solo parts
      • Has cadenzas written by the composer rather than improvised
    • Instruments
      • String family:         Violin            Viola       Cello (violoncello) ]Bass (double bass, contra bass)
      • Percussion family: Timpani (kettledrums) Snare drum Bass drum Cymbals Tambourine Triangle Xylophone Glockenspiel
      • Woodwind family:    Flute, Piccolo Oboe, English horn Clarinet, Bass clarinet Bassoon, Contrabasso-on
      • Brass family Trumpet Horn   (French horn) Trombone Tuba
      • Keyboards and Harp: Piano     Organ     Harp
    • Notable Composers
      • Isaac Albéniz
        • Cantos de España
        • Suite española,
        • Piano Concerto
      • Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin
        • Hungarian Dances.
        • German Requiem
        • Variations on the St. Antony Chorale
      • Johannes Brahms
        • Polonaises in G minor
        • Rondo à la Krakowiak
        • Variations, op. 2 on a theme from Don Juan by Mozart
    • Forms
      • Symphony
        • 1st movement: Allegro (fast) in sonata form
        • 4th movement: Allegro
        • 3rd movement: Minuet (a dance with three beats in a bar)
        • 2nd movement: Slow
      • Sonata
        • Most of the musical ideas come from two contrasting  themes  heard in the exposition.
        • In the  exposition  there are two main melodies; first and second  subject.
        • The first subject is in the tonic key.The second subject is in a different key, usually the dominant or the relative minor. Connected by a transition or bridge passage.
        • in the   recapitulation the exposition is repeated (recapped) in a slightly different and shorter form. The first and second subject are now in the tonic key.
        • In the  development  material from the exposition is transformed. The music goes through  modulations (key changes).


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