Restless Earth

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  • Created by: Molly6098
  • Created on: 01-11-13 18:30
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  • Restless Earth
    • Plates
      • Boundaries
        • Constructive
          • 2 plates move away from each other, magma rises, creates new crust
        • Collision
          • 2 continental plates meet, plates smash together, no crust destroyed
        • Conservative
          • 2 plates moving past each other, same or different directions, at different speeds
          • USA west coast
        • Destructive
          • Where 2 plates are moving towards each other
          • Oceanic meets continental, oceanic plate forced under (denser), destroyed
          • Nazca plate
      • Other
        • Ocean Trench
          • Steep sided depression in ocean floor
        • Subduction Zone
          • Area where one plate is being pulled under another
        • Volcanic Arc
          • Arc shaped chain of volcanoes formed above a subduction zone
    • Volcanoes
      • Types
        • Shield
          • Lava: runny, quick
          • Made of lava
          • Mauna Loa, Hawaiian Islands
        • Composite
          • Lava-thick and slow
          • Layers of ash and lava
          • Mount Fuji, Japan
        • Dome
          • Lava: Thick, slow
          • Made of lava
          • Mount Pelee Caribbean
      • Case Study
        • Impacts
          • Primary
            • 20 villages, schools, hospitals, airport, port, vegetation, farmland destroyed
            • Large areas covered in ash
            • 19 died, 7 injured
          • Secondary
            • Population decline
            • Tourism declined, is now increasing
            • Volcanic ash improved soil fertility
            • Fires destroyed buildings
        • About
          • 4-5 million m of rocks and gas
          • June 25th 1997
          • Soufriere Hills, Montserrat
          • Destructive plate margin
        • Responses
          • Secondary
            • Montserrat volcano observatory set up
            • £41 million provided
            • Risk map and exclusion zone created
          • Primary
            • £17 million emergency aid
            • Shelters and temporary infrastructure built
            • Local  emergency services provided support
            • People evacuated
      • Formation
        • Constructive
          • Magma rises into gap formed
        • Destructive
          • Oceanic plate melts, pool of magma forms, magma rises through vents, magma erupts
    • Earth's Structure
      • Mantle
        • 5000 °C
        • Plates can move-float on mantel
        • Convection currents-move plates on surface
      • Crust
        • Split into plates
        • Thinnest Layer
        • Outer Layer
        • Continental and oceanic crust
          • Oceanic: Thinner, more dense, can be destroyed and renewed
          • Continental: Thicker
      • Core
        • Inner Core
          • 6000 °C
          • Iron and Nickel
        • Densest part
        • Outer Core
          • Less hot
          • Semi-molten
    • Fold Mountains
      • Case Study: Alps
        • Tourism
          • New facilities built
          • Huge part of economy
        • HEP
          • Narrow valleys dammed
        • Mining
          • Salt, iron ore, gold, silver, copper
        • Farming
          • Vineyards
          • Goats
        • Forestry
          • Scots pine planted-more resiliant
        • About
          • Mont Blanc-4180m
          • 30 million years, collision of African and European plates
          • 12 million people
          • Central Europe
        • Adaption
          • Animals grazed in high areas-poor soil
          • Goats farmed, well adapted
          • Roads built-better communications
      • Formation
        • Plates collide, sedimentary rock folded and forced up to form mountains
        • Destructive plate margins
      • Uses
        • Mining
        • Hydro-Electric power
        • Forestry
        • Farming
        • Tourism
    • Earthquakes
      • 3 Ps
        • Prediction-Forecasting earthquakes
        • Protection-Building to an appropriate standard
        • Preparation-practicing what to do and educating people
      • Measured
        • Seismographs-record extent of shaking with a pen on a rotating drum
        • Richter scale-measures magnitude, no upper limit, logarithmic scale-size increases x10 when scale increases by 1
        • Mercalli scale- measures effects, 1-12 in roman numerals
      • Case Study
        • Rich: L'Aquila, Italy 6th April 2009 6.3 on Richter scale Movement along plate at destructive margin
          • Effects
            • Secondary
              • Fires caused more damage
              • Aftershocks caused more damage and hampered rescue
              • Broken water pipe caused landslide
            • Primary
              • Buildings, a bridge, a water pipe, all damadged
              • 1000s homeless
              • 290 dead, 100s injured
          • Preparation
            • Laws on construction standards
            • Civil protection department-trains volunteers
          • Responses
            • Secondary
              • Investigation into why buildings weren't built to withstand earthquakes
              • Prime Minister promised to build new town
            • Primary
              • Cranes and diggers removed rubble
              • Emergency services sent in
              • Money provided by government
              • Camps set up
              • International rescue teams came in
        • Poor: Kashmir, Pakistan   8th October 2005          7.6 on Richter scale Movement along crack at destructive margin
          • Effects
            • Secondary
              • Diseases-Diarrhoea
              • Landslides-buried people and buildings, blocked access roads
              • Freezing winter conditions
            • Primary
              • Water and electricity cut off
              • 80,000 deaths, 100,000s injured
              • 1000s building destroyed, 3 million homeless
          • Preparation
            • Buildings not built to withstand
            • No planning
            • Bad communications
          • Responses
            • Secondary
              • 40,000 relocated
              • Government money provided
              • Training provided
              • Health centres built
            • Primary
              • No help for days/ weeks
              • International aid brought in
              • Supplies distributed within a month
      • Features
        • Focus-place where earthquake begins-deep in earths crust
        • Deep focus=less damage
        • Epicentre-point directly above focus, on surface
        • Primary Waves-weak,cause surface to move backwards and forwards
        • Secondary Waves-Stronger, at right angles to movement of wave
        • Longitudinal-cause up and down movement
        • Transverse-at right angles, cause more damage
      • About
        • A sudden brief period of intense ground shaking
        • At all plate margins, mainly destructive and conservative
        • Occur when pressure builds up between 2 plates and then releases suddenly
    • Tsunamis
      • Case Study
        • Affects
          • 5-6 million needed emergency supplies
          • 1.7 million homeless, buildings and infrastructure destroyed
          • Massive economic damage
          • 230,000 killed or missing
          • Massive environmental damage
          • Affected most countries bordering Indian Ocean
        • About
          • 26th December 2004
          • Destructive plate margin
          • Earthquake-9.1 on richter scale
          • Waves up to 30m high
        • Responses
          • Long-term
            • Programmes set up to rebuild homes and get people back to work
            • Billions of pounds pledged
            • Tsunami warning systems and disaster management plans set up
          • Short-term
            • Ships, planes, soldiers and specialists sent
            • Hundreds of millions of pounds pledged
    • Super Volcanoes
      • Effects
        • Thousands of cubic km of volcanic material
        • Thick cloud of super heated gas flows at high speeds destroying everything within tens of miles
        • Ash will block out almost all daylight-could cause mini ice age
        • Ash will settle over hundreds of square kilometers
      • About
        • Mega-colossal volcano
        • Erupts at least 1000km of volcanic material
        • Rising magma cannot escape, bulge appears on surface, cracks appear in surface, gas and ash erupt, magma chamber collapses, forming caldera
      • Case Study
        • World temp. fell 3-5C
        • 74, 000 years ago
        • 3000km magma
        • Toba, Sumatra
        • Covered India in 15cm of ash
  • Tsunamis
    • Case Study
      • Affects
        • 5-6 million needed emergency supplies
        • 1.7 million homeless, buildings and infrastructure destroyed
        • Massive economic damage
        • 230,000 killed or missing
        • Massive environmental damage
        • Affected most countries bordering Indian Ocean
      • About
        • 26th December 2004
        • Destructive plate margin
        • Earthquake-9.1 on richter scale
        • Waves up to 30m high
      • Responses
        • Long-term
          • Programmes set up to rebuild homes and get people back to work
          • Billions of pounds pledged
          • Tsunami warning systems and disaster management plans set up
        • Short-term
          • Ships, planes, soldiers and specialists sent
          • Hundreds of millions of pounds pledged

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