Glycolysis

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  • Glycolysis:
    • Glycolysis takes place in the cell CYTOPLASM. It involes the breakdown of 1 molecule of GLUCOSE to form 2 molecules of PYRUVATE. Net production of  2 ATP.
    • 2. GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE --> FRUCTOSE 6 PHOSPHATE
      • ISOMERISATION. 1 ATP USED up. Further activation of glucose can occur.
    • 1. GLUCOSE --> GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE
      • PHOSPHORYLATION which activates the glucose.
    • 3. FRUCTOSE-6-PHOSPHATE --> FRUCTOSE-1,6-DIPHOSPHATE
      • PHOSPHORYLATION. 1 ATP USED up. Fructose-1,6-diphosphate very unstable and unreactive. Hexose bisphosphate split into 2 separate molecules.
    • 4. FRUCTOSE-1,6-DIPHOSPHATE --> TRIOSE PHOSPHATE
      • CLEAVAGE of fructose-1,6-biphosphate (splits).
    • 5.TRIOSE PHOSPHATE --> PHOSPHOGLYCERATE.
      • Steps to convert triose phosphate to pyruvate. OXIDATION removing 2 HYDROGEN atoms from each triose phosphate molecules. ATP FORMED.
    • 6. PHOSPHOGLYCERATE        --> PYRUVATE
      • ATP molecule FORMED for each reaction. HYDROGEN atom pairs accepted by NAD.
    • Gross production of ATP = 4, net production of ATP = 2, 2NADH2 (reduced NAD) produced, as NAD has GAINED HYDROGEN.

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