1.4 bio questions

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    • processes of protein digestion and absorption in the alimentary canal
      • Protein is digested by proteases in the stomach and small intestine/duodenum and is broken down into amino acids. Absorption takes place in the small intestine
    • Graph: x - constant gradient, y - levels off
      • At X as the enzyme concentration increases so does the rate of reaction – this is because there are more enzymes and active sites available to react with the substrate. 
      • At Y an increase in enzyme concentration has no further effect on the rate of reaction as the substrate has become limiting – there are too many enzymes for the amount of substrate available
    • advantages of lower temp enzymes in washing powders
      • It will be cheaper to wash at 40 °C and it is likely to be lass damaging to clothes
    • why is it important that food is digested
      • So that it can be absorbed/get into bloodstream
    • How the structure of the ileum is adapted to the function of adsorption of digested food molecules
      • length/folds/villi provide a large surface area thin epithelium/membrane gives a short diffusion distance
      • permeable epithelium/membrane allows digested food molecules to pass through easily
      • permeable epithelium/membrane allows digested food molecules to pass through easily
      • good blood supply/capillaries in villi maintain a high diffusion gradient
      • length/folds/villi provide a large surface area
    • Lipase
      • fatty acids produced by the action of lipase affect pH
    • Experiment - effect of amylase on starch
      • Test Tube C: water and starch
        • enzyme required for digestion of starch; so iodine changes colour (brown to blue-black)
      • Test Tube B: boiled, cooled amylase and starch
        • boiling denatures amylase enzyme; starch is not broken down to glucose; so iodine changes colour (brown to blue-black)
      • Test Tube A: amylase and starch
        • after 10 mins amylase had broken down starch to glucose so iodine doesn’t change colour
      • 0 min, blue/black as starch present (in all test-tubes)
    • Enzyme:
      • protein; speeds up reactions; biological catalyst; not used up in the reaction
    • Graph
      • Two different proteases equally good at stain removal
        • Support: Both remove same/similar mass of protein
        • Not support: Their performance depends on temperature used
    • Bile
      • Emulsification aids digestion as it produces a larger surface area for enzyme action
        • Bile also neutralises stomach acid as food moves into the duodenum - important if digestion is to continue in duodenum
          • enzymes have an optimum pH / pH at which they work best; bile neutralises stomach acid allowing enzymes to function 
    • Function of organs in the digestion of food
      • ileum
        • absorption of digested food
      • Stomach
        • starts protein digestion / acid used to kill microbes on food
      • colon
        • reabsorption of water


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