psychodynamic approach

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  • Freud - Psychodynamic approach.
    • Structure of pesonality
      • ID
        • Operates in the unconscious.
        • Contains Libido (Energy created by reproductive instincts)
        • Pleasure principle - immediate gratification
      • EGO
        • Mediates between ID and Superego
      • Superego
        • Causes feelings of guilt when rules are broken.
        • Internalisation of societal rules.
        • Ego-Ideal - what a person strives towards.
          • Determined by parents
    • Defence mechanisms.
      • Repression.
        • Blocks unacceptable thoughts and impulses
        • Sill influences behaviour but the individual would be unaware.
      • Displacement
        • Redirecting of thoughts/ feelings.
        • Taking things out on other people.
      • Denial
        • Refusal to accept reality to avoid painful feelings.
        • May act like it didn't happen.
      • They work unconsciously by distorting reality to reduce anxiety.
    • Psychosexual Stages
      • Oral 0-1 years
        • Focus of pleasure is the mouth.
        • Mother's breast it the object of desire.
        • Oral fixation - smoking, nail biting.
      • Anal 1-3 years
        • Focus of pleasure is anus
        • Gains pleasure from withholding and expelling faeces.
      • Phallic 3-5 years
        • Focus of pleasure is the genital area.
        • Oedipus or Electra complex
          • Oedipus complex
            • Male child unconsciously wishes to posses mother and to get rid of father.
          • Electra complex
            • Female child unconsciously wishes to posses Father and get rid of mother.
      • Latency
        • Earlier conflicts are repressed.
      • Genital
        • Sexual desires become conscious along the onset of puberty
          • Difficulty forming Heterosexual relationships.
    • Iceberg analogy
      • Top of the iceberg
        • Consious
          • Thoughts
          • Perceptions
      • Middle of the Iceberg
        • Preconcious
          • Memories
          • Stored Knlowledge
      • Bottom of the iceberg
        • Unconcious
          • Irrational wishes
          • Selfish needs
          • Shameful experiences.

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