Psychodynamic Approach

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  • PSYCHO-DYNAMIC
    • What is it?
      • Sigmund Freud
      • Releasing unconscious desires and making them conscious
      • Focused a lot on sex - was taboo at the time
    • Methodology
      • Case studies
        • In-depth, detailed information about an individual
        • Free association
        • Dream analysis
          • Manifest content - what you remember
          • Latent content - the underlying unconscious meaning
        • Slips of the tongue
        • valid data
        • lack reliability and generalisability
        • About unconscious so cannot falsify
        • Very subjective data
      • Qualitative data
        • Tends to be valid - rich information
        • Sometimes the only way to study the required area
        • Hard to generalise
        • Very sbujective
      • Correlation
        • Levels of measurement
          • Nominal data
            • Categories are recorded e.g. 'yes/no'
          • Ordinal data
            • Ranked data
          • Interval/ratio data
            • Real measurement e.g. height or time
        • Two variables that are both measured
          • Finds relationship between them
        • Positive correlation
          • One variable rises as the other does
        • Negative correlation
          • One variable rises and the other falls
        • Spearman's rank
          • Interferential statistical test
          • Carried out if what is being tested is a relationship and not a difference
          • Level of measurement is ordinal or interval data
          • Critical value
          • Level of significance
        • Little manipulation of variables
        • Doesn't shows whether relationship is chance related
        • Lack validity - atleast one of variables has to be operationalised
      • Longitudinal studies
        • Follow one set of participants over time
        • participants may drop out
        • No participant variables to affect results
        • Show developmental trends
      • Cross-sectional studies
        • Measurements taken at one point in time
        • Gather immediate results
        • More ethical - only take measurements once
        • Two groups - individual differences
        • Situational variables cannot be controlled
    • Content
      • Freud's theory of personality
        • Conscious mind
          • Consists of all mental processes we are aware of
        • Pre-conscious mind
          • Contains all memories that are not present in the conscious but can be bought into it given the right conditions
        • Unconscious mind
          • Contains memories that are too threatening to be in the conscious
          • have a big influence on our behaviour
      • Freud's structure of personality
        • ID
          • Exists at birth
          • Wants everything it's own way
          • Inherited instincts
          • Pleasure principle
          • Eros - life or sexual instincts
          • Thanatos - death or aggressive instinct that will attack anything that interferes with gratification of libido
          • Entirely unconscious
        • Ego
          • referee between id and superego
          • Reality principle
          • Represents 'reason and good sense'
          • Defence mechanisms
          • Emerges around 2 years old
        • Superego
          • Emerges around 4 years
          • Morality principle
          • Ego-ideal - tells us what we should be and do
          • Conscience - tells us what we should not be and do
          • Makes us feel good and proud when do something well and miserable/guilty when go against rules
      • Defence mechanisms
        • Repression
          • forcing harmful, traumatic memories into the unconscious
        • Denial
          • Refusing to acknowledge harmful thoughts altogether
        • Displacement
          • Putting unacceptable thought onto someone/thing else other than the main focus
      • 5 stages of psychosexual development
        • Oral stage
          • 0-2 years
          • Libido is focused on mouth
          • Satisfaction by sucking, eating
          • If fixated will seek constant oral gratification as an adult - smoking, drinking, over eating, biting nails
        • Anal stage
          • 2-4 years
          • Libido directed towards anal reigon
          • Child becomes aware of self and recognises they must take account of demands of reality
          • Anally-retentive person - obsessed with neatness, excessively self-controlled and stubborn
          • Anally-expulsive person - disorganised, messy and careless
        • Phallic stage
          • 4-6 years
          • Libido focused on penis for boys and clitoris for girls
          • Oedipus and Electra Complex
        • Latency stage
          • 6 - puberty
          • Sexuality lies dormant
          • Want nothing to do with opposite sex
          • Develop self-confidence
          • Learn social rules for appropriate male and female behaviour
        • Genital stage
          • Puberty onwards
          • Libido focused on genitals
          • Masturbation
          • Beginning of mature adult sexuality
      • Freud's explanation of gender development
        • Oedipus Complex
          • Boy has sexual desires of mother
          • Feels aggression towards father - jealous of his relationship with mum
          • Castration axiety
            • stronger than desire for mother so repressed
          • Identifies with father
          • Displaces feelings for mother onto women in general
        • Electra Complex
          • Girls have penis envy
            • Identifies with mother so can possess father
    • Studies in detail
      • Little hans
        • Wanted to try and treat his phobia of horses
        • Case study- info from Hans' father
        • Different themes
          • interested in his widdler
          • wanted his father to go away
          • horse phobia
          • giraffe dream
          • bath phobia
          • bowel movements
          • plumber dream
      • Axline Dibs
        • wanted to help Dibs unlock whatever was troubling him
        • wouldn't speak/interact with others and would be aggressive if challenged
        • father never picked him up from school
        • he didn't want to go home from school
        • play therapy
          • dolls and toy soldiers
        • didn't like locked rooms or walls
    • Key issue
      • do dreams have meanings?
      • most dreams occur during REM sleep
      • 'royal road to the unconscious'
      • manifest and latent content
      • PET scans show ID is active during dreaming
      • Freud got his information from case studies from Viennese women and Hans' father so not reliable and very subjective
      • Untitled

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