Periodic table

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  • Separating Mixtures
    • Revision of Chemistry
      • Periodic Table
        • Alchemists thought that they could turn base elements into gold.
        • John Dalton was an english scientist who recognised that different elements were different types of atoms
        • Dobreiner found that some elements came in groups of 3 with similar chemical properties.
        • Newland was an english chemist who was working in a sugar factory
          • Newland was the reason for the law of octaves elements arranged in term of reactions and atomic mass
        • Reactivity of elements and electrons
          • Noble gases are very  unreactive
          • In the periodic table the row/period  the element is in is how many electron shells it has.
          • When atoms react chemically they do so to get a full outer shell of electrons.
          • Metals normally lose electrons to get a full outer shell.
        • Group 7 halogens
          • They are more reactive at the top of the group and less reactive at the end of the group.
            • Halogen means salt makers and they are reactive non metals.
          • All halogen elements consist of 2 atoms.
      • Ionic bonding
        • An ion is a positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms.
        • In ionic bonding atoms lose or gain electrons to form positively or negatively charged atoms.
        • All the elements in group 1 have one electron in their outer shell and those in group 2 have two electrons. They lose electrons to get a full outer shell and stabilise as an ion.
        • Group one and Group two elements are metals and they lose electrons to form cations.
        • On the other side of the periodic table the elements group 6 have sic electrons in their outer shell and those in group 7 have seven electrons. They need to gain electrons in order to get a full outer shell and stabilise as an ion.
        • Group 6 and Group 7 elements are non-metals and they gain electrons to form anions.
      • Covalent Bonding
        • Atoms of some elements can form several covalent bonds.
        • They have low melting and boiling points.
        • Do not conduct electricity as molecules have no overall charge so cannot carry an electrical charge.
    • Solution-a mixture of the solvent and solute
      • How to make pure salt
        • 1) Get a mixture of salt and sand
          • 2) Add this mixture to water.
            • 3) Make sure you have enough water to dissolve the salt
              • The sand will not dissolve as it is insoluble
              • 4) Now you will need a flask, filter paper and a filter to filter out the sand.
                • 5) Evaporate the filtrated mixture on top of a bunsen burner.
                  • 6) Once you can see no water left in the flask then remove the flask from the tripod and you will have pure salt
    • Solvent-a liquid that dissolves in water.
      • Insoluble-this is what you call a substance that doesn't dissolve.
    • Solute-the minor component in a solution that dissolves in a liquid like salt in water
    • Soluble-when something dissolves
    • Saturated solution- a saturated solution is a chemical solution containing the maximum concentration of a solute dissolved in the solvent


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