Pilgrimage of Grace

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  • Pilgrimage of Grace
    • Causes
      • Political
        • Possibly in response to the changes in local government etc. under Henry VII
        • Others see it as the result of the growth of the gentry and their intervention
          • Dissolution of monastaries, 1536
            • In Lincolnshire, these three commissions were at work. This is where the rebellion started
              • Inspections of the clergy
          • Collecting 1534 taxes
            • In Lincolnshire, these three commissions were at work. This is where the rebellion started
              • Inspections of the clergy
        • Dr Raynes, Bishop of Lincoln's Chancellor was brutally beaten to death
        • Lord Hussey had links to the Aragonese faction
      • Economic
        • Had been poor harvest in 1535 and a fairly weak one in 1536 (didn't make up for previous year)
        • Economic grievances were listed in Pontefract Articles
          • e.g. for 1st Fruits and 10ths to be discharged, unless clergy wanted to pay them to the Crown
      • Religious
        • The Break with Rome and subsequent move towards  Protestantism was very unpopular
          • Pontefract Articles show that religion was important
          • Adopting the banner of the Five Wounds of Christ shows the rebels' religious grievances
        • It's name- Pilgrimage of Grace- shows it had a religious motive
        • The religious changes led to considerable changes in the community
          • People were unwhappy about the:
            • Dissolution of smaller monasteries (since 1536)
            • Government interrvention
            • Religious reform - lots of people were conservative
        • Lots of the clergy encouraged the rebellion
        • Most people relied on the monasteries for support
          • Social
            • Pontefract Articles talk about enclosures to be pulled down
        • 11 of 24 Pontefract Articles were about religion
      • Social
        • Pontefract Articles talk about enclosures to be pulled down
    • How serious?
      • Even if it didn't challenge Henry directly it could still be very serious
        • If it forced Henry to change his policies and dismiss advisers,  it would make him unable to control his kingdom
      • Pontefract Articles were largely religious and political
        • e.g. against Cromwell for 'undermining the good laws of this realm and for maintaining heretics'
        • Also wanted traditional customs to be restored
      • Evidence of pre-planning in Lincolnshire and East Riding
      • Some grievances were shared between the classes
        • E.g. restoration of traditional liberties for Palatinate of Durham
      • People were untied by: 1) future of Church 2) future of Cromwell
      • Some argument that it was actually a political conspiracy by disgruntled nobility trying to assert their authority
        • E.g.. Lord Hussey fostered unrest in Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk's lands
        • Also possible that it was about 'high politics'. I may have been led by Aragonese faction
          • Their main aims were: to restore Mary and destroy Cromwell
          • Hussey had alliance with Darcy. Hussey had been Mary's CHamberlain until his dismissal THey encouraged Mary to refuse to accept royal supremacy
            • THey hoped to use the rebellion to encourage Henry to dmiss Cromwell and reserve his policy
      • 30,000 men
      • Although many of nobility were anti-Cromwell, the scale of the rebellion meant that it could never be successful. Unlike the  1525 Amicable Grant
      • Henry did slow his religious reforms in 1539- is this related?
      • Henry was able to strengthen his control of the north because those that were involved were harshly punished
    • Role of the gentry
      • Robert Aske was part of the lesser gentry as a lawyer
      • But, lots of the Lincolnshire gentry only knew about the rebellion when they were asked to swear the rebel oath with by their tenants etc.
      • Concerns against Cromwell etc, seem to show gentry's concerns for court politics
      • The level of organisation and widespread communication suggests high level leadership
        • Lots of gentry claimed to have been coerced later on
          • There is evidence that they only joined to try and control the commons
            • But once they were involved, they used it to address their own grievances
      • Gentry drew up the Lincolnshire Articles
        • Nicholas Leche said that gentry singled out Cromwell and Richard Rich for criticism
      • In Yorkshire etc, the major nobility were aloof. Held out with Earl of Cumberland at Skipton Caste
      • Social deference and natural hierarchy made it easy for gentry to take the lead
        • Therefore, it could be directed at the government and personal ambition
    • How spontaneous was the PoG?
      • Dissolution of monasteries confirmed peoples' fears that the government would do away with their traditional religious customs
      • Some see the rebellion as a spontaneous backlash. Yeomen and traders  resented the changes in local government etc.
        • Not a coincidence that the rebellion began in Lincolnshire, where there were 3 commissioners working
  • How spontaneous was the PoG?
    • Dissolution of monasteries confirmed peoples' fears that the government would do away with their traditional religious customs
    • Some see the rebellion as a spontaneous backlash. Yeomen and traders  resented the changes in local government etc.
      • Not a coincidence that the rebellion began in Lincolnshire, where there were 3 commissioners working
  • Also possible that it was about 'high politics'. I may have been led by Aragonese faction
    • Their main aims were: to restore Mary and destroy Cromwell
    • Hussey had alliance with Darcy. Hussey had been Mary's CHamberlain until his dismissal THey encouraged Mary to refuse to accept royal supremacy
      • THey hoped to use the rebellion to encourage Henry to dmiss Cromwell and reserve his policy

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