- Pavlov (1927)
- Aim - to investigate whether a reflex behaviour can be produced in new situations through learning.
- Procedure - repeated measures design, tube attached to dogs mouth, food (UCS) would lead to salivation (UCR) with NS of a metronome, presented a metronome before food appeared, dogs learned to associate the sound of the metronome with food, just the sound of the metronome caused drooling.
- Results - the conditioned dog started to salivate 9 seconds after hearing the sound and by 45 seconds, produced 11 drops of saliva.
- Conclusion - Pavlov had discovered classical conditioning. The NS, after being repeatedly paired with a UCS, turned into a CS, producing the CR by itself.
- Reliable - standardised procedures, inter-rater reliability, repeated it many times over 25 years - test-retest reliability.
- Ethics - research animals should be treated humanely but there were no ethical guidelines then.
- Generalisable - can't generalise results from dogs to humans - different brains.
- Validity - low ecological validity as it is unusual to be presented with an odd stimuli.