Paradigms of Criminology

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  • Paradigms
    • Classical School (1st Movement)
      • Becarria- Need for CJS: free will,rationality and manipulability.
      • Individuals are able to make rational,calculating choices regarding behaviour. Choices are made when advantageous.
      • Crime focus: any criminalised behaviour,state definitions of crime are unchallenged
      • Deterrent principle:one has free will and can therefore be persuaded not to commit crime
      • People are motivated by pleasure to commit crime. Punishment is essential to control criminal behaviour.
      • Crime is a  voluntary act committed by a person exercising a deliberate choice. Victims of crime are of no importance.
    • Positivism/Positive School
      • Cesare Lombroso. Many distinct pathological conditions may be the genesis of criminal behaviour
      • Any deviant or criminal behaviour most often those traditionally percieved as relatively serious.
      • State definitions of crime tend to be uncritically accepted.
      • Crimonogenic environment: poor family relationships,labelling. Biological/genetic
      • Lombroso's atavism
        • Criminals= evolutionary "throwback" Criminals are born criminals. Based on positivism
        • Criminals can be distinguished from non criminals by their physical manifestation of atavistic or degenerative physical anomalies
        • Dates from Darwins time. Accepts juridicial definition of crime but rejects free will and rational choice. Focuses on determinism: environmental factors.
        • Focuses on criminal not crime.Human behaviour is determined by biological, psychological and socio-economic factors
        • Punishment has to be proportionate to the crime and when necessary linked to treatment


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