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    • INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI: 9.1 on Richter scale. Large waves 5-40m high. Caused by displacement of water.
      • EFFECTS: >220,000 dead. 65000 injured. 2mil homeless. disease. loss of coastal fishing. orphans.
      • RESPONSE: $7bil in aid. 160 aid organisations. Banda  Aceh rebuilt. Warning system: 39 buoys. 289 hospitals.
    • MONTSERRAT VOLCANO: 1997. Location: Caribbean. N American and Caribbean plate.
      • EFFECTS: 2/3 covered in ash. 23 died. Plymouth destroyed. Floods (ash). Forest fires (pyroclastic flows) 1/2 population fled.
      • RESPONSE: £41 million aid. Riots. 50% evacuated. Exclusion zone. Observatory. Services in North expanded.
    • KOBE EARTHQUAKE MEDC: 1995. 7.2 on Richter scale.
      • EFFECTS: Cost $220bn. 6434 dead. 740,000 injured. 300,000 homeless. 2mil without electricity.
      • S.T RESPONSE: 7-11 provide essentials. Motorola- free phone connections. L.T RESPONSE: rebuilt hanshin train. 134,000 new houses. improve structures. Better monitoring.
    • KASHMIR EARTHQUAKE LEDC: 2005. 7.6 on Richter Scale. Muzzafrabad epicentre.
      • EFFECTS: Cost $5bn. >79000 killed. 100,000 injured. 3.3mil homeless. Disease and pneumonia.
      • S.T RESPONSE: indian red cross 21,500 blankets. 300 kitchen sets. tents- muslim   aid.            L.T RESPONSE: 1 month- 350,000 tents. 3.2mil blankets. UN $95.6mil for farmers. $441 basic shelter.
    • BOSCASTLE FLOODS: 2004. GDP >39,000. CAUSE: heavy rain (200mm in 4 hrs) Steep slopes. Building on floodplain. Low bridge.
      • EFFECTS: 1000 people caught. 58 houses flooded. 300mm sewage pipes blocked. Cost £50mil.
      • RESPONSE: warnings. firecrews and paramedics. 7 helicopters rescue 80 people. Clean up operation. Flood control £4.6m. Widen R.Valency. Wetland Storage area.
    • BANGLADESH FLOODS: GDP $797. CAUSE: heavy rain (900mm in july). Snow melt. Deforestation.
      • EFFECT:  750 killed. 30m homeless. 10,000km roads destroyed. food crops destroyed. 100,000 cholera cases
      • RESPONSE: Aid. Houses on stilts. Better flood warning system. Children taught to swim.
    • CHAMONIX: 100,000 summer. 60,000 winter. 350km hiking. 40km biking.
      • RESPONSIBLE: espace mont blanc. tomorrow's valley. Electricity lines underground. Renovation. Preservation. Plant trees. Free bus transport.
      • PROBLEMS: Noise/air pollution. Trampling. Gullying (bikes). Damage to habitat. 30 years, snowline rise by 300m. Abondance 2007.
    • GALAPAGOS: off coast of ecuador. 90% national park. 1000 (1960s) to 160,000 visitors. Hammerhead sharks, turtles.
      • BENEFITS: jobs:local tour guides (eg fishermen). Boats hold 11-16 people. Income: £25 per person goes to conservation trust. $100 nation park fee.
      • SUSTAINABLE: No feeding animals. Limited activities in most places. 5m away from animals. $1.8m grant improve businesses. $50,000 water treatment, natural chlorine, preserve swamps.


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