P7 The Sun The Stars and their Surroundings pt2

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  • P7.4 The Sun, The Stars and their Surroundings
    • Why a Protostar is Hot
      • The Particle Idea: Every particle attracts another one. As they fall inwards they speed up due to GPE being turned into KE and their particles share their energy. The fastest particles are in the centre as they have the highest temperature.
      • The Gas Idea: Gravity causes the gas to compress which raises its temperature.
    • The Sun
      • Core is 14M Kelvin. Then it is the radioactive zone. Then it is the convectional zone, 1M K. Then photo sphere 5800K.
    • Star Deaths
      • Heavyweight Stars: Spend most of life in the main sequence. Then become a supergiant. Then it becomes a supernova. Then it finally becomes  a neutron star or a black hole.
      • Smaller Stars (Sun): Spend most of lifetime in the main sequence. Then becomes a red giant. Then becomes a planetary nebula. Then a white dwarf.
      • Stars
        • Core of a Star
          • Carbon- Oxygen core.
          • Helium-(After carbon core)Helium burning.
          • Hydrogen- Burning shell (after Helium burning shell).
          • Heavier elements  are towards the core.
    • Neutron Star
      • A spinning neutron Star send out a beam of radio waves-the origin of a pulsar.
    • Detecting Exoplanets
      • Eclipse: An exoplanet passing in front of a Star can eclipses some of its light. The dip is small but can be measured using sensitive instruments.
      • Wobble; An exoplanet and Star orbit around their common centre of mass. IF the planet is big enough the wobble of the star can be detected.
      • Wobble in Spectral Line Frequencies: Whats detected- Frequency of light is red-shifted as the star moves away from the observer. Blue shifted as it moves towards the observer.

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