P1- the earth in the universe

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  • P1- the earth in the universe
    • the solar system consists of a star (the sun) and things that orbit it in eclipses
      • planets reflect light and  orbit the sun, there is 8 in our solar system
        • closest to the sun are the inner planets, mercury, Venus, earth then mars
          • next is the asteroid belt then much further out there is the outer planets jupiter, saturn, uranus then neptune
    • the big bang theory
      • large dust/gas cloud condensed, then gravity caused cloud to collapse on itself, at centre formed a protostar, temp got so high that fusion started and the sun was born, around the sun heavy elements clumped together becoming planets
      • if there is enough mass then expansion could stop- big crunch. depends on how much dark matter there is
    • we are in the milky way galaxy, there is 10^11 suns
    • the type of EM radiation and the colour of the star can tell us surface temp, whats in sun and lots of other things
    • Parallax- uses the apparent movement of a star to work out actual distance to a star
    • light pollution and the atmosphere can make light detection difficult
    • we see what stars used to look like
      • distances are huge and so even though the speed of light is fast we see what the stars used to be like
      • when a star is moving away from i=us the wavelength stretches towards the red end of the spectrum and so appears red
      • supports the big bang theory
    • continental drift- wegner
      • peole used to think that there was a land bridge connecting Africa to south ametica, explaining the similar coastline rock and fossil types
      • he said that all continents were once joined - pangea, explaining africa and south america
      • however he was frowned upon because he wasn't a 'proper' geographer and there was no evidence
      • evidence of tectonic plate movement confirmed his theory
    • Earths structure
      • solid inner core, liquid outer core, liquid mantle and solid crust
      • oceanic crust is denser and heavier than continental
    • earthquakes produce wave motions
      • recorded on seismograph
        • time taken and also which seismograph/s are reached shows us strength and wave type
      • p-waves: solids and liquids, faster than S-waves and are longitudinal (vibrations in same direction as wave travel)
      • s-waves: only go through solids, slower than P-waves, transverse (vibrates at 90 degrees to wave travel)


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